Author Archives: S.Srinivas

Historian and Writer

The Hindu Holocaust

Today the whole world recognizes the word holocaust with the killing of Jews by the Nazis. Historian J.L.Mehta in his work Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India Vol-I use the word holocaust for the death and destruction of Hindus under the hands of Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad of Ghori. But considering the devastating rape and ravages done to Hindus and Hindu society on a scale unprecedented in the history of mankind it would be appropriate to call the period from the invasion of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim till the establishment of Bangladesh as an independent country as the period of Hindu holocaust.

Difference between Jewish holocaust and Hindu holocaust

  • While the holocaust of the Jews took place for some seven to eight years; that of the Hindus took place for several centuries, which could be divided into two phase. The first phase from 713 A.D. (conquest of Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim) to 1761 (third battle of Panipat) wherein atrocities were committed on Hindus by foreign Muslims and the second phase from 1761 to 1971 (when Bangladesh became an independent country) wherein atrocities were committed on Hindus by the descendants of the victims of Muslim mayhems taken place during the first phase.
  • While the holocaust of the Jews meant the death of Jewish men, women and children, that of the Hindus saw not only killings of Hindu men, women and children, but also rape and enslaving of Hindu women, slavery of Hindu children, forcible conversion and destruction of Hindu temples, Buddhist monasteries (including the famous Nalanda University) and destruction of Hindu/Buddhist literary works.
  • While the death toll due to the Jewish holocaust comes around six millions (60 lakhs) the death toll of the Hindus even by rough estimate could not be less than sixty millions (six crores).
  • While the Jewish holocaust was caused due to the injunction of Hitler as he believed that the Jews were of inferior race, the holocaust of the Hindus were caused due to the sanction of the religious scriptures of the Muslims which considers all non-Muslims as inferior and therefore no right to live.
  • Aftermath the holocaust the Jews learnt a bitter lesson; with the holocaust museums around the world reminding of the Nazi atrocities and the need to prevent such happenings in the future. But none such museums exists in India for the present generation of Hindus to become aware of the horrors experienced by their forefathers. Even history text books under the influence of Marxist historians have whitewashed the atrocities committed by the Muslims on Hindus. With power hungry politicians with their appeasement policies ruling the roost in India, the day would not be far away when the Hindus would have to face another holocaust; this time the whole Hindu race could be wiped out completely.

The Quranic injunction on non-Muslims

The Quranic law divides all non-Muslims into two classes, namely those who are according to it, the possessors of some kind of revealed scripture (ahle-Kitab) and those who are not and are idolators (Kafirs and Mushriks). The first group consisting only of Jews and Christians is permitted by the authority of the Quran to enjoy partial toleration in a Muslim state on payment of an invidious tax called the jiziya; but the other consisting of polytheists is not eligible for any kind of toleration whatever. Subsequently a third group of non-Muslims that is of those who resembled the possessors of revealed books (musahab ahl-i-kitab) was recognized and the Zoroastrians were placed under this category. The latter too were allowed to live in a Muslim country on payment of the jiziya like the Jews and Christians. Of the four early and authoritative commentators on the shara or the Islamic law who became founders of the four well-known schools of Muslim law, three namely, Malik Ibn Anas (715-795 A.D.), Ash-Shafi (767-820 A.D.) and Ahmad bin Hanbal (780-855 A.D.) lay down in unmistakable terms that idolators have no right to live in a Muslim country (i.e., one either ruled by Muslims or peopled by Muslims) and that they must either embrace Islam or suffer death. But the fourth commentator named Abu Hanifah (699-766A.D.) is of the opinion that idolators might be given besides the choice between Islam and death one more alternative, namely permission to live as Zimmis (living under a contract) or as inferior citizens with an obligation to pay the jiziya (poll tax) and to submit to certain political, legal and social disabilities.

As the Quran and the Hadis did not really permit Muslim rulers to allow Hindus to live under a Muslim government but to give them the choice between Islam and death the ulama pressed the sultans from time to time that the Quranic law should be enforced and that either the Hindus should be compelled to embrace Islam or they should be butchered in cold blood. For instance during the reign of Iltutmish (1211-1236) the ulama made a united demand that the Hindus should be confronted with the Quranic injunction of Islam or death. The Sultan referred the question to his wazir Nizammul- Mulk Junnaidi, who though concurring with the ulama’s interpretation of the law, said that at the movement India has newly been conquered and the Muslims are so few in number. If the above orders are applied to the Hindus it is possible that they might combine and rebel. However after a few years when in the capital and in the regions and the small towns, the Muslims are well established and the troops are larger it will be possible to give Hindus the choice of death or Islam. Similar demand was made by Qazi Mughis-ud-din of Bayana during the reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji (1296-1316). He said that God has himself commanded their (Hindus) complete degradation inasmuch as the Hindus are the deadliest foes of the Prophet. The Prophet has said that they should either embrace Islam or they should be slain or enslaved and their property should be confiscated to the state. Because of the vast numerical superiority of the Hindus and their military and economic strength the Quranic law could not be enforced completely. Hence the sultans allowed the Hindus to live as Zimmis, i.e., the people living under contract as second class citizens by paying a special tax called jiziya.

Types of atrocities faced by the Hindu

Mass killings

Muhammad bin Qasim’s first act of religious zeal after the capture of Sindh was to forcibly circumcise the Brahmanas of the captured city of Debul; but on discovering that they objected to this sort of conversion he then proceeded to put all above the age of seventeen to death and to order all others with women and children to be led to slavery. Utbi in his Tarikhi Yamini writes about the massacre, plunder and destruction that followed the victories of Mahmud of Ghazani. He remarks that the victors slew the vanquished wherever they were found, in jungles, passes, plains and hills. He further adds that the blood of the infidels flowed so copiously that the stream was discoloured notwithstanding its purity and people were unable to drink it. A contemporary Muslim writer observes about the consequences of Muslim victory in Gujarat in 1197- “Most of the Hindu leaders were taken prisoners and nearly fifty thousand infidels were dispatched to hell by the sword. More than twenty thousand slaves fell into the hands of the victor. Victorious campaigns of the Muslims were generally followed by the massacre and enslavement of the Hindus on a massive scale. Tarikh-i-Wassaf, written at the beginning of the medieval period gives an example of such massacre and enslavement after Alauddin’s campaign in Gujarat. The author narratives- the Muhammadan forces began to kill and slaughter on the right and on the left unmercifully throughout the impure land for the sake of Islam and blood flowed in torrents. They took captive a great number of handsome and elegant maidens amounting to 20,000 and children of both sexes more than the pen can enumerate. According to Amir Khusrav who was an eyewitness during the siege of Chittor in 1303, after its capture, Alauddin gave orders for the slaughter of his enemies and about 30,000 Rajputs were killed in one day. The invasion of Timur in 1398-99 had a disastrous effect on the political, social, cultural and economic condition of north India. Dozens of big towns were sacked and devastated, hundreds of villages razed to the ground and totally wiped out and millions of innocent men, women and children put to the sword. For instance he ordered the killing of nearly one lakh Hindu prisoners before marching to Delhi as he feared that they might trouble him during his conflict with the army of Delhi. The male prisoners were used as beasts of burden to carry the spoils on their heads for their victors to their homelands; many of them died of hunger and fatigue on the way. Thousands of Hindu women were enslaved, dishonoured and humiliated. Even the so called tolerant ruler like Akbar was guilty of massacring Hindus in thousands. For instance he invaded Chittor in 1567 and just because the Rajputs offered stiff resistance to his invasion, after securing Chittor he ordered a general massacre and about 30,000 Hindus were slaughtered. After the third battle of Panipat about 9000 Marathas were slaughtered in cold blood. According to an eye witness every Afghan soldier killed hundred to two hundred Maratha for the sake of gaining religious merit to their mother, father, sister and wife through killing of Kafirs. Barbarous cruelties were perpetrated on the Hindus not only in the north but in the south also. Ibn Batutah gives a graphic account of such cruelties perpetrated by the Sultan of Madura in the south. He cites an example of a Hindu whose head was cut down with those of his wife and young son of seven years of age by the Sultan of Madura. He observes that on another day the same Sultan got the hands and feet of a Hindu cut off. Another historian Farishta has narrated in his works the blood curdling tales of wholesale rapine and cold-blooded massacre of the Hindus by the Muslims. The Sultanate period was on of long crusade against Hindu religion and culture. K.M.Munshi a distinguished writer and renowned scholar writes about this period- “ It was one of ceaseless resistance offered with one relentless heroism of men, from boys in teens to men with one foot in grave, flinging away their lives for freedom; of warriors defying the invaders from the fortress for months; of women in thousands courting fire to save their honour; of children whose bodies were flung into the wells by their parents so that they might escape slavery; of fresh heroes springing up to take the place of the dead and to break the volume and momentum of the onrushing tide of invasion”.

The mass killings continued even in the twentieth century when demanding the formation of Pakistan the Muslim League gave a call for Direct Action Day during which there was abductions, forced marriages, rapes, compulsory conversion to Islam of scores of Hindus. An estimate twenty lakh people perished most of them Hindus after India was partitioned. In 1971 nearly nine million refugees were driven from East Pakistan of which the majority were Hindus. The ethnic cleansing done in Serbia in recent times pale into insignificance when compared to that done in East Pakistan. Whereas the culprits of the Serbian ethnic cleansing were booked for their crimes and punished those who did it in East Pakistan went unpunished. Even in independent India where there is a Hindu majority they are always at the receiving end when communal riots break out. As Babasaheb Ambedkar writes the Muslims spirit of aggression is his native endowment and is ancient and in this exhibition of the spirit of aggression the Muslim leaves the Hindu far behind.

Social, Economic and Cultural Discrimination

Islam invariably aspires for the conquest and extermination of the indigenous religion and culture of the country it invades. Under the Muslim domination the Hindus fretted and chaffed at the loss of their political power. Their political subjection was followed by social degradation. They were treated with severity and reduced to a state of abject poverty and had to live like helots within the empire. Sheikh Hamadani in his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk explains the policy of the Muslim State and the duties of the ruler towards the non-Muslims, the Zimmis. He lays down twenty conditions to be imposed by the Muslim rulers on the Zimmis and make their lives and property dependent on their fulfillment of the terms. Among these twenty conditions the following deserve mention.

  • In a country under the authority of a Muslim ruler, they (Zimmis) are to build no new homes for images or idol temples
  • They are not be rebuild any old buildings which have been destroyed
  • Muslim travellers are not to be prevented from staying in idol temples
  • Infidels may not act as spies
  • If the Zimmis are gathered together in a meeting and Muslims appear, they are to be allowed at the meeting
  • Zimmis are not to ride on horses with saddle and bridal
  • Zimmis are not to possess swords and arrows
  • They are not to wear signet rings and seals on their fingers
  • They are not to build their homes in the neighbourhood of the Muslim
  • They are not to mourn their dead with loud voices
  • They are not to buy Muslim slaves
  • Zimmis should not propagate the customs and usages of polytheists among Muslim, etc.

If the Zimmis infringe any of these conditions it shall be lawful for Muslims to take their lives and possessions. In the reign of Sultan Alauddin Khilji, Qazi Mughisuddin of Bayana advised the Sultan to follow rigid anti-Hindu policy. He said –“Hindus are the deadliest foes of the Prophet. The Prophet has said that they should either embrace Islam or they should be slain or enslaved and their property should be confiscated to the state. When the Sultan consulted the Qazi about the policy to be followed for the Hindus, he answered- “They (Hindus) are called Khirajguzars (tax and tribute payers) and when the revenue officer demand silver from them, they should without question and with all humility and respect give gold. If the revenue and tax collector chooses to spit into the mouth of a Hindu, the latter must open his mouth without hesitation. Other restrictions were also imposed on Hindus like they were not allowed to wear fine clothes, ride on horseback or possess arms. Sometimes they were not permitted to chew betel or wear the same kind of dress as Muslims. Vidyapati, who was the famous poet of Mithila in the 15th century A.D. has given a graphic and gruesome account of the religious and social oppression of the Hindus by the Muslims. He observed that the Turks forced the Hindus to work without pay, placed the leg of the dead cow on the heads of the Brahmans, licked the sandalwood mark on their foreheads, tore off their sacred thread, broke temples and build mosques in their place, abused and assaulted the Hindus.

Rape and enslavement of Hindu women

Muslim rulers and nobles of India were sexual sadists known for their low morality and were debauchees par excellence. Kaiqubad the grand-son of Balban was 17 year old when he succeeded to the throne in 1287 A.D. He had been brought up under the strict guardianship of his grandfather Balban where casting a glance at a fair face or to taste wine was a taboo. When Kaiqubad became the Sultan, his pent up desires and passion found expression in unrestrained indulgence in wine, women and gaiety. So much so that musicians, singers, jokers, jesters and beautiful dancing girls from different parts of the kingdom thronged his court. Due to over indulgence Kaiqubad was struck with paralysis when he was just 20 and was kicked to death by a Khilji soldier and thrown to river Jamuna and the Slave dynasty came to an end. Mubarak Shah son of Ala-ud-din Khilji who ascended the throne in 1316 A.D overthrew all decency and royal dignity to the winds and sometimes appeared in the court in a state of drunkenness, accompanied by the dancing girls and vulgar slave boys who misbehaved with the courtiers and put everyone to shame. The Sultan adorned himself with the garments and trinkets of women and appeared in assemblies. Historian Barani says that sometimes the Sultan would run naked among his courtiers. The Muslim rulers and nobles were notorious for maintaining big harems.Khan Jahan Maqbul, the Prime Minister of Sultan Firoz Tughlaq is said to have maintained 2000 women of various races and nationalities in his harem. The ruler of Bahamani Kingdom, Firoz Shah had a harem of 800 women of various nationalities like Arabians, Georgians, Turks, Europeans, Chinese, Rajputs, Bengalis and others. He was reputed to be a master of many languages and was able to converse with each of his mistress in her own language. Sultan Mahmud of Gujarat was so strict in maintaining peaceful atmosphere in the harem that if any lady laughed at or derided the other, both were killed. During his early days, Akbar if he found any married women interesting, he used to ask her husband to divorce his wife in his favour. Non-compliance meant death or banishment. At the age of 25 Akbar had no less than a thousand divorcees in his harem. They were all once wives of Muslim and Hindu noblemen of his court. Mughal historian Abul Fazl says that Emperor Akbar had a harem of 5000 women supervised by a separate staff of female officers and eunuchs were appointed to guard them. Unauthorized entry into harem by any man was punishable with severing of legs and throwing out the trunk to wolves for a feast. The whole Muslim society was characterized by low morality and sensuality and even learned scholars and theologians were addicted to wine and women. One Maulana Shams Asadi was so much over sexed that he even neglected his obligatory prayers and ran after slave women. This type of atmosphere led to the worsening of the position of Hindu women during the Muslim rule over India. It was a fashion among the Turks, Pathans, Afghans and Mughals to take a wife from a Hindu family. Young Hindu girls were forcibly taken away and married to Muslims. Before the arrival of Muslim invaders Hindu women participated freely in social activities and functions. Rajput women took part in battles and in other outdoor activities even till as late as the fourteenth century. From paintings, sculpture, coins and references of foreign writers we find no evidence of the existence of purdah among the Hindus. Alberuni who was in India in the beginning of the eleventh century does not mention child marriage among the Hindus. But with the arrival of Muslim invaders purdah and ghoonghat was adapted by the Hindu women to save their honour from the lustful eyes of the Muslims. Except those belonging to the lower classes, Hindu women did not move out of their house. To safeguard the chastity of their daughter’s new rules were made to enforce early marriage.

During the military expeditions and invasions of the Muslims when the Rajputs had no hope of victory they fought to the last man and died in the battle. Before that last fight they collected their women, young ones, the middle aged and also those sixteen years old and made them enter the burning pyre, the act which was called Jauhar. This was to prevent the victorious Muslims from dishonouring them. Jauhar became a normal feature of the Rajput society only with the coming of the Muslims in India. Such sacrifices of life for the sake of honour and chastity are probably not found in the history of the other countries.

After the defeat of Dahir and capture of Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim, Parmal Devi and Suraj Devi the two daughters of the deceased raja Dahir were taken captives and sent to Baghdad for introduction into the Caliph’s harem. According to Utbi after the defeat of Jaipal, Mahmud Ghazni took five lakh people including beautiful women as slaves. Ibn Batutah refers to the forcible conversion, mass enslavement and the inferior status of the Hindus as Zimmis. He gives several references to the humiliating treatment accorded to the Hindu female captives of the highest rank. Referring to the Id ceremony at Delhi in the Sultan’s palace he observes. “Then enter the musicians, the first batch being the daughters of the infidel rajas- Hindus- capture in the war that year. They sing and dance and the Sultan gives them away to the amirs and aizza. Then come the other daughters of the infidels who sing and dance and the Sultan gives them away to his brothers, his relations, his brother-in-law and the malik’s sons. When Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his presents to the Emperor of China, they included one hundred male slaves and one hundred female slave songstresses and dancers from among the Indian infidels. Guru Nanak refers to the invading army of Babur as a ‘marriage party of sin’ and bemoans that “not even the ladies of the nobles were spared dishonour. With heads once of luxuriant tresses and partings adorned with red, they suffered now the shears of brutality; their throats were filled with choking dust; they wandered in a pitiful condition”. In recent times to force Hindus out of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) a systematic massacre of Hindus was started by the Muslims in 1950 and according to government figures more than 50,000 Hindus were butchered, thousands of Hindu women were abducted and raped and inhuman and barbarous crimes were perpetrated against them. To prevent young Hindu girls from being sent away to West-Bengal for the safety of their honour and to make the humiliation of the Hindus complete, a ‘Girls Release Duty’ was imposed on all Hindu girls leaving East Pakistan. Their hopeless guardians had either to pay this undignified tax or leave their sisters and daughters to the mercy of Pakistan goondas.

Forcible conversions

Muslim rulers converted Hindus to Islam in large numbers. Sikandar the Butshikan of Kashmir converted thousands of Hindus to Islam and expelled those who refuse to be converted. Jala-ud-din of Bengal (1414-1430) forcibly converted hundreds of Hindus and persecuted the rest. Firoz Tughluq and Sikandar Lodi were the instances of Delhi Sultans who indulged in mass persecution and conversion of Hindus. According to Muslim historian Afif during the time of Firoz Tughlaq a Brahmin who was publicly performing the worship of idols in his house was tied hand and foot and was burnt alive before the palace gate because he refused to change his faith and embrace Islam. Sikandar Lodi also put to death a Brahmin named Bodhan who ventured to say that both Hinduism and Islam were true religions.

During Aurangzeb rule, the experiment of mass conversion was first tried in Kashmir. Sher Afghan Khan, the emperor viceroy in Kashmir set about converting Kashmir’s Brahmins by sword. In desperation some of them went to Anandpur and sought the help of Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Guru asked them to tell the emperor that they will embrace Islam if Tegh Bahadur was first converted. The Guru was summoned to Agra and on his refusal to embrace Islam and perform miracles he was killed on November 11th 1675 at Delhi. Earlier his disciples, Mati Das’s body was cut with a saw, while that of another disciple, Bhai Dayal Das was thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusal to convert themselves as Muslims.

In 1789 Sambhaji died after being tortured by Aurangzeb. Not satisfied with this Aurangzeb who had taken his (Sambhaji) son Shahu as prisoner issued an order that Shahu be converted to Islam during the month of muharram in 1703. The news spread like wildfire throughout Maharashtra and a deep shadow of gloom pervaded the whole atmosphere. Shahu and his mother were prostrate with grief and in that helpless state they turned to Aurangzeb’s daughter Zinatunnisa who pleaded for Shahu with her father. Aurangzeb relented at last but at a price and the price was that two prominent Marathas should offer themselves for conversion in place of Shahu. Even in those days when unselfish patriotism was a rare virtue there were people who could die without a groan for their king and for their country. Two sons of Pratap Raogujar, Khande Rao and Jagjiwan, brother-in-law of Rajaram, who were captured at Raigarh along with Shahu and lived with him in the imperial camp offered themselves for conversion to save Shahu. They were accordingly converted on May 16, 1703 and renamed Abdur Rahim and Abdur Rahman.

Even as late in 1789 thousands of people in Kerala were circumcised and made to eat beef by Tipu who had issued a proclamation directing the inhabitants of Malbar to embrace Islam. Later in 1921 the Moplahs (converted Muslims of Kerala) forced their Hindu neighbours to embrace Islam and killed those who refused. All kinds of pressure were exerted on the Hindu population in order to compel them to embrace Islam. Criminals who embraced Islam were acquitted and government posts were conferred upon converts who were besides rewarded in many other ways. Islam did not permit the conversion of Muslims to Hinduism or the reconversion of Hindu converts to Islam. Those guilty of the offence of seducing Muslims from their religion were awarded the capital punishment. The same punishment was inflicted for reconverting Hindu converts to Islam.

Religious discrimination

Not only during the course of war or a campaign but also in peacetime Hindu temples were razed to the ground and their images broken to pieces. They were also forbidden from building new temples and repairing the old ones. Muhammad bin Qasim carried out the destruction of temples after his conquest of Sindh but made an exception to a temple at Multan as it was frequented by a large number of pilgrims and used to get good income. Nevertheless he satisfied his desire by tying a piece of cow’s meat around the neck of the idol of the temple. Minhaj-us-Siraj tells us Mahmud of Ghazani became famous for having destroyed as many as a thousand temples and his great feat was to break the idol of Somanath into four pieces and placing one at the entrance of his palace and another at the entrance of the mosque in Ghazni to be trodden upon by Muslims. It is said that Mahmud was requested by the priests not to break the main idol in return for immense wealth. But Mahmud spurned the offer and said that he would rather like to be known as ‘Mahmud the idol breaker, (butshikan) than the idol seller (but-farosh). Qutbuddin Aibak is also said to have destroyed nearly a thousand temples. Firoz Tughlaq writes in his Fatuhat-i-Shahi how he rode to the village of Maluh where the Hindus had gathered to worship by the side of a tank and a fair was being held and he not only put down Hindu worship and destroyed the idols but also ordered the worshippers to be put to death. He also razed to the ground temples in places like Mandrail, Utgir, Narwar and Nagarkot and erected mosques and carvan sarais in their place. The pieces of the broken images of Hindu idols were brought from Nagarkot and were given away to Muslim butchers to be used as meat weights.

The literature of the Vaishnavas in Bengal has given a description of the miserable plight of the Hindus in Bengal. According the accounts given the Muslims used to break the images of the gods into pieces and throw away the articles of worship. They used to burn the Shrimad Bhagavat and other holy scriptures, forcibly take away the conch shell ad bell of the Brahmanas (two necessary articles of worship) and lick sandle paints on their bodies. They urinate like dogs on the sacred Tulsi plant and deliberately pass faeces in the Hindu temples. They throw water from their mouths on the Hindus engaged in worship. According to Jayanand’s Chaitanyamangala if the King of Gaud hears the sound of a conch shell in any house, its owner is made to forfeit his wealth, caste and even life. Outrages committed on the Hindus by two Qazis, Hasan and Husain in the reign of Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah (1493-1519) of Bengal is well described by Vijay Gupta in his works. He says that the Hindus were beaten mercilessly, sacred thread of the Brahmans torn away and saliva was spat in their mouths. Consequently many Hindus embraced Islam to get rid of this ignominious fate. Some of the Hindus embraced Islam to escape the much hated tax of jiziya. Barani a famous historian of the Sultanate period eagerly yearned that the Hindu slaughtering swords of Islam should not be put to their scabbard until the whole of Hind had embraced Islam. He desired that Muslim rulers should not allow the infidels to keep their temples, adorn their idols, and to make merry during their festivals with beating of drums and dhols, singing and dancing. Aurangzeb reimposed the jiziya and pilgrim’s tax on the Hindus and ordered the wholesale demolition of temples in all parts of the empire. He instructed the governors of all provinces that they should destroy the schools and temples of the infidels and put an end to their educational activities as well as the practices of the religions of the kafirs. The result was that universally respected temples, including those of Vishwanath and Gopinath at Banaras, that of Keshavrai at Mathura and many others were razed to the ground. Aurangzeb appointed a darogah to supervise the activities of the army officers who were charged with breaking images and destroying temples. Cart-loads of broken images were brought to Delhi and Agra from all the provinces and buried under staircases of Jami mosques of these and other towns.

Results of the holocaust

  • According to Babasaheb Ambedkar the fall of Buddhism in India was due to the invasion of the Musalmans. Islam came out as the enemy of the ‘But’. The word ‘But’ is an Arabic word and means an idol and also refers to Buddha. The Muslims identified idol worship with the religion of the Buddha and to break the idols became the mission to destroy Buddhism. Islam destroyed Buddhism not only in India but wherever it went. Before Islam came into being Buddhism was the religion of Bactria, Parthia, Afghanistan, Gandhara and Chinese Turkestan. It all these countries Islam destroyed Buddhism. Further Ambedkar quotes Vincent Smith who points out that the furious massacre perpetrated in many places by Musalman invaders were more efficacious than orthodox Hindu persecution and had a great deal to do with the disappearance of Buddhism in several provinces of India.
  • According to A.L.Srivastava during the period 1200-1803 A.D. the Hindu society deteriorated morally and materially. The government during the Sultanate and Mughal period was tyrannical and repressed the people and did whatever it could to demoralize them. The government did not tolerated manly virtues of courage, honesty and frankness and resistance to oppression. The result was that the Hindus as a people developed a character of low cunning, deceit and flattery in order to get on in the world. In short they suffered a great deal of moral and intellectual degeneration. The historian Jadunath Sarkar justly holds the medieval Muslim government responsible for the Hindu degeneration of that age and considers it the greatest disservice done to this country.
  • During the centuries of Muslim domination the Hindus race’s instinct for self-preservation, combined with the individual’s need for a guarantee of personal safety intensified the rigidity of the caste system. The proselytizing zeal of Islam strengthened bonds of conservatism in the orthodox circles of the Hindu society. The Hindu became more orthodox in their outlook and practice than what they were in the past. To fortify their position against the propagation and spread of Islam, the Hindus increased to a great extent the stringency of many social taboos and castes rules and regulations. New rigid rules of conduct, diet, marriage and religious rites and ceremonies were prescribed. The stiffness and rigidity of the caste system served as a strong cordon for Hinduism from being submerged entirely in Muslim culture. Had there been so such caste system in India, the whole of the Hindu race might have embraced Islam as other nations in Asia and Africa had done.
  • The Indian Muslims (Hindu converts) during the rule of the Turks and later Mughals had little share in the administration of the country, not admitted into the aristocracy of the conquerors and not given a share of their social and economic privileges. His only consolation was that he professed the same religion as his rulers and could pray with them on Fridays. His constant desire was to be treated on a footing of equality with his foreign co-religionist and to share their power and wealth. To attain his life’s ambition he had to imitate foreign ways and style of living and even to abjure his ancestors. It was an irony of fate that owing to these reasons he was cut off from those who had once been his kinsmen, dead or alive and was like an alien in his own motherland. It was this inferiority complex along with his economic and educational backwardness that made the Indian Muslims claim separate homeland and which led to the establishment of Pakistan and Bangladesh.


  • Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s Writings and Speeches, Vol- 3, Vol-17 part I, Published by Dr. Ambedkar Foundation
  • Anil A Athale – Let the Jhelum Smile Again, Aditya Prakashan, Mumbai
  • Bal Raj Madhok – Portrait of a Martyr – A Biography of Dr. Shyama Prasad Mookerji, Rupa & Co, New Delhi
  • J.S.Grewal- The Sikhs of the Punjab, The New Cambridge History of India II, Cambridge University Press, 1995
  • J.L.Mehta- Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India Vol -I, Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, Delhi
  • Murray T Titus – Indian Islam, Oxford University Press, 1930
  • B.N.Luniya- Life and Culture in Medieval India, Kamal Prakashan, Indore
  • A.L.Srivastava- The Sultanate of Delhi, Shiva Lal Agarwala & Co, Agra
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  • A.L.Srivastava- The Mughal Empire, Shiva Lal Agarwala & Co, Agra


Carvakas/Lokayata – The Empiricists of Ancient India

Indian Materialism is known to us today in its four names; Brhaspatya, Nastikamata, Carvaka and Lokayata. It is known as Brhaspatya because of the ascription by tradition of the authorship of the classic work on Indian materialism namely Brhaspatisutras to Brhaspati. But as to who this Brhaspati was and whether he was at all a historical figure- controversy still persists. Scholars like Macdonell and B.M.Barua consider Brhaspati to be only a mythical founder of the system, the real historical founder according to them being Carvaka and Ajita Keshakambalin. S.K.Belvalkar and Tucci on the other hand are in favour of accepting the historical foundership of Brhaspati. The name Nastikamata is applied to Indian materialism as it does not believe in the Vedas and in the other world. As some scholars believe Carvaka the founder of Indian materialism, it is called as Carvaka darshana. Some are of the view that Carvaka was the disciple of Brhaspati. Carvaka is referred in the Mahabharatha as a rakshasa, a founder or propagator of materialism. Others feel that the name Carvaka is derived from caru- a name given to Brhaspati and identify Carvaka with Brhaspati. According to S.N.Dasgupta Lokayata was the name by which all Carvaka doctrines were generally known. Lokayata meant a system of philosophy based on Loka (this world). It did not recognize the concepts of heaven, hell or salvation. It was called Lokayata because it was prevalent among the people. According to S.Radhakrishnan Lokayata is the Sanskrit word for materialism and Indian materialists were in general called Lokayatikas.

Antiquity of Lokayata

Some scholars of the view that Indian materialism is the oldest philosophical school as all other schools in their respective systems try to refute the truths established by this school thus admitting its priority. It is also a fact that the word darshan in its primary sense means perception and the materialists maintain that the word darshana was first originated by the followers of Brhaspati. Buddhist and Jaina texts refer to a number of materialist philosophers who lived at the time of Buddha and Mahavira and even earlier. Sixty two such heterodox thinkers are mentioned and among them the most prominent were Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajitakesa Kambali, Pakidha Kaccayana, Nigantha Nataputta, Sanjaya Velathi Putta, Bhaguri, Purandara, Jabali, Kambaksvadhara, etc. In Mahabharatha there are references to haitukas who did not believe in the other world. They were learned in the Vedas, in other sastras, made gifts, performed sacrifices, hated falsehood and went among people explaining their views. This shows that even in the Vedic circles there were people who did not believe in anything except what exists in this world. Buddhists sources mention that Brahmins were well versed in the Lokayata learning. This shows that there were in the Vedic circle many moral and learned people who believed in heretical view that is, disbelief in the doctrine of immortality or in a world beyond the present. The Mahabharatha also contain clear and simple elucidations of various materialistic theories such as Svabhavavada or naturalism, Yedricchavada or accidentalism and Parinamavada or evolutionism. According to B.A.Saletore, the development of Lokayata School took place after the six century B.C. and before 4th century B.C. as Kautilya in his Arthashastra (4th century B.C.) refers to them. The Sukraniti gives a long list of the science and arts that were studied and in this it counts the nastika sastra as that which is very strong in logical arguments. Medhatithi in his commentary upon Manu also refers to the tarka vidya (science of logic) of the Carvakas.

Extinction of Carvaka Texts

All our information about Indian materialistic doctrines is drawn from the brief accounts of the system and numerous references to its doctrines occurring in the works of its opponents and critics belonging to both heterodox (Jains and Buddhists) and orthodox (Samkya and Mimamsa schools), poets, philosopher thinkers, dramatists, etc. Some of the works which provide information about Indian materialism are Sarva Dharshana Sangraha of Madhavacharya, Saddarshana Samuccaya of Haribhadra Suri, Sarva Siddhantasara Samgraha attributed to Samkaracarya, Sarvadarshana Kaumudi of Madhava Sarasvati, Sarvamatasamgraha, Tattvasamgraha of Shanta Raksita, Ramayana, Mahabharatha, Padma Purana, Vishnu Purana, Manu Smrti, Kautilya’s Arthashastra, etc. Many of the above mentioned works quote with acknowledgement the sutras, karikas and shlokas pertaining to the materialistic school of thought and this shows that there once existed at least two works of the Indian materialists namely Brahspati Sutras and Lokayata Sastra. With regards to the reasons of the non-availability of the texts of Carvakas, it can be explained in two ways.

  1. When the doctrines of a system become the beliefs of the common man, one does not need to read books to get convinced of them and hence feels no need to preserve the existing ones even, not to say of writing new ones. With the passage of time (through continuous disuse and negligence) the existing works are sure to become extinct. This may be the case with regards to that works on materialism in India. For the fact that materialism enjoyed considerable popularity here is clearly borne out by the general complaint of the orthodox thinkers about the growing materialism among the masses. The impression that is given by their writing further confirms that in fighting against materialistic doctrines they were fighting against the beliefs of the common man. Not only the very name Lokayata (meaning prevalent among the people) given to the Indian materialism is indicative of its popularity but there is historical evidence also to prove its popularity among the masses.
  2. The second explanation for the extinction of the once existent works on Indian materialism is that the opponents of the system who wanted to free people from the ‘evil’ influence of the system burnt and destroyed them or it may be contended that the once popular doctrines of materialism were so much reacted against by their opponents that the intellectual climate changed and forced the materialists to burn their own works in order to escape persecution at the hands of the reactionaries.

Karnataka, epicenter of the Carvakas?

According to B.A.Saletore the Lokayatas were more common in western India especially in the region of Karnataka proper than elsewhere; that they possessed five well known centres in Karnataka from where they radiated their influence and that they were very vigorous from the tenth century A.D. to fifteenth century A.D. This statement is made based on the information provided by the inscriptions found in places like Gunderi, Beguru, Balligamve, Somanathapura and Nagarakhanda which were the strongholds of the Carvakas in Karnataka. Accordingly the Carvakas were Hindus and scholars of different creeds and even secular rulers were proficient in the doctrines of Lokayatas. For instance a record dated 1148 A.D. says that the Pandya prince of Ucchani, Vira Pandya was well versed in Lokayata doctrines. As the doctrines of Lokayata was given a place among the various philosophies and acknowledge with respect both by the Hindus and Jainas for more than five centuries in Karnataka, the pontiff of Sringeri, Madhvacharya Vidyaranya mentions the doctrines of the Lokayatas in detail in his work Sarvadarshanasamgraha.

Epistemology- Senses, the only reliable source of knowledge

According to the Carvakas theory of knowledge, the only way of realizing truth was by direct perception of evidence of sense. The idealists held that there were three sources (pramanas) of knowledge, viz., perception, inference and sabda or sacred utterance (of the Vedas). The Carvakas did not recognize sabda as a source of knowledge because they questioned the validity of the Vedas. With regards to inference, the Carvakas held that inference always depended on perception. For example smoke comes from fire. We know by perception that it is true. But an inference that wherever there is fire there is smoke or that wherever there is smoke there must be fire need not be true. According to the Carvakas inference may be correct when they are concerned with certain manifestations of nature, but they may be wrong when applied to certain other phenomena. Inferences are related sometimes to the past and sometimes to the future. In the case of the past they may be correct, but as far as the future is concerned, inferences may prove to be wrong. So inference is not always a reliable method. Those aspects of the phenomena which are incapable of being observed and explained by direct perception are of doubtful validity. That is why the Carvakas argued that the only reliable source of knowledge was perception.

Metaphysics- Denied existence of God and Soul (atma)

The Carvakas recognize perception as the only means of valued knowledge. As God cannot be perceived, the Carvakas deny the existence of God and are atheists. They also reject the law of karma and moksha or liberation. Just as God cannot be perceived, the so called atma or soul cannot be perceived and hence the Carvakas does not recognize the existence of the soul. They identify the soul with the body which is endowed with consciousness. The body according to the Carvakas is composed of four materials like the earth, water, fire and air. The sense organs and consciousness are produced by their atomic arrangements just like intoxicating liquor is produced by molasses when it undergoes fermentation. While Dhurta Carvakas hold that there is no soul apart from the body, the Sushikshita Carvakas on the other hand hold that there is a soul apart from the body as the constant knower and enjoyer of all experiences but it is destroyed along with the body at death. The Carvakas no not recognize the transmigration of soul as if it was true then the soul would remember the experiences of the past life just as a person remembers the experiences of his childhood or youth.

Severe critics of Vedas and Brahmanas

The Carvakas vehemently criticized the priests and their crafts and maintained that the Vedic mantras chanted by the priests for sacrifices had no divinity whatsoever. Some mantras did not convey any meaning, some were ambiguous and some contradictory. Some spoke of results which were never realized. Hence the Vedas were not only human compositions but worse they were composed by buffoons, knaves and demons. Vedic rituals and animal sacrifices were all meaningless. The priests say that the animals sacrificed in the yajna attain heaven. If so why did they not send their own parents to heaven by sacrificing them in the yajnas? The priests tell us that the offerings made in this world on death anniversaries of the ancestors satisfy their hunger and thirst in the other world. If so an extinguished flame in one lamp should burn when oil is poured in another. The priests tell us not to injure life but they find an exception for themselves when eating the flesh of the animal burnt in sacrifice. All these therefore are the devices of greedy Brahmins to earn wealth by cheating the common folks.

Lokayata, precursor of Tantrism?

According to Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Lokayata was the popular and obscure beliefs and practices that are broadly referred to as Tantrism. That the Lokayatikas were opposed to the Brahmanical rituals does not necessarily mean that they were opposed to rituals as such. In the Buddhist text Saddharma Pundarika there is a mention of Lokayata-mantra-dharaka which shows that they were practicing some kind of spell. Their conflict with Brahmanism arose as they wanted to stick to their own rituals and these rituals were rooted in a set of beliefs which was in direct conflict with orthodox Brahmanism. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya opines that original Tantrism like its more philosophical version known as Samkya was atheistic and materialistic and spiritual and other worldly ideas were subsequently superimposed on it.

Were the Carvakas hedonists?

Materialism as a philosophy doctrine definitely denies the concept of divine reward or retribution. It does not hesitate to declare that there is no pleasure obtainable beyond this world but it not synonymous with hedonism. In Greece Epicurus (342-271 B.C.) had been a victim of this libel. Epicurus and Epicureans had all along preached a doctrine of self-sufficiency and plain living. But their opponents persistently branded them as heedless hedonists. This shows the deep rooted misconception regarding the identity of materialism and hedonism. According to M.Hiriyanna, the Carvakas did not believe in any spiritual values and was content with the worldly ones of sensual pleasure and wealth. Hence they were represented as discarding morality and preaching hedonism. But no serious thinker could conceivably have inculcated such a teaching. The only thing the materialist could have meant is that there are no higher values, in the sense accepted by the generality of Indian philosophers. The Carvakas repudiated the authority of the Vedas which according to the orthodox is the source of belief in such values. According to the Carvakas different parts of the Vedas are irreconcilably at variance with one another and that it is therefore impossible to make out what it really teaches.

Gist of Carvaka’s Teachings

The overall position of the Carvakas as presented by Madhavacarya’s work may be briefly summed up as follows- The Carvakas (Lokayatikas) are the materialists explaining the origin and development of everything through a harmonious combination of four elements of earth, air, water and fire in various proportions. They are naturalists (Svabhavavadins) who reject supernaturalism with all that it implies i.e., God, soul (apart from the body), life beyond the present one (transmigration), existence of heaven and hell (except in this world in the form of natural pleasurable and painful existence), karmaphala and adrusta (fate), etc. They believe in manly strength and the efficacy of human endeavor in the attainment of happiness, even though they are realists enough to realize the difficulty in attaining unmixed happiness. They advise us to avoid as well as endure pain (by way of making efforts) in order to get happiness. Activities such as growing of crops, building of houses, cooking and the like have their hazards. We are not to be afraid of them. The life of the body torturing ascetic and the fraudulent priests duping simple folk deserves nothing but condemnation. One of the main reasons of rejecting the authorities of the Vedas by them is that the Vedas sanction sacrifices, performance of which involves killing and obscene rites. An ordered society is needed for the realization of the aim of human happiness; hence the Carvakas are the followers of Arthasastra and Niti. Of the four values; dharma, artha, kama and moksha recognized traditionally in India, the Carvakas recognize only two values kama (happiness) and artha (wealth). Dharma is a vague concept, understood generally however in the sense of religious duty. The Lokayatikas do not have any place for religion in their system and hence none for dharma as well. As regards to moksha understood generally as a state of freedom from the misery and suffering (involved in life) marked by desirelessness, the Carvakas hold that one who has got manly strength ought to strive for it, for desires together with the efforts to realize them constitute life.

Impact of Carvaka school of thought

  • The chief importance of the Carvaka system for us lies in the evidence it affords of the many sidedness of philosophical activity in India in ancient times and of the prevalence of a great deal of liberty of though as well as of freedom of expression.
  • Skepticism or agnosticism is the expression of a free mind that refuses to accept traditional wisdom without a through criticism. Philosophy as critical speculation claims to live chiefly on free though and the more it can satisfy the skeptic the sounder it can hope to be. By questioning the soundness of popular notions, the skeptic sets new problems, by the solution of which philosophy becomes richer. Carvaka saved Indian philosophy from dogmatism to a great extent. Every system of Indian thought tried to meet the Carvaka objections and made Carvaka a touchstone of its theories. The value of Carvaka philosophy therefore lies directly in supplying fresh philosophical problem and indirectly compelling other thinkers to give up dogmatism and become critical and cautious in speculation as well as in statement of view.
  • As the Lokayatikas captured the hearts of the cultured as well as the common people all become earnest in working out their immediate earthly welfare. The result of this movement was the origination and propagation of different arts and sciences. Vatsyayana mentions some 64 names of Indian fine arts which flourished in this period of Indian materialism.
  • According to S.Radhakrishnan the materialist theory had a good deal to do with the repudiation of the old religion of custom and magic. Liberal efforts at improving existing institutions sanctioned by time and embodied in the habits of people will remain ineffectual if the indifference and superstitions of centuries are not shaken up by an explosive force like the Carvaka creed, he adds. Materialism signifies the declaration of the spiritual independence of the individual and the rejection of the principle of authority. Nothing need be accepted by the individual which does not find its evidence in the movement of reason. It is a return of man’s spirit to itself and a rejection of all that is merely external and foreign. The Carvaka philosophy is a fanatical effort made to rid the age of the weight of the past that was oppressing it. The removal of dogmatism which it helped to effect was necessary to make room for the great constructive efforts of speculation.
  • The Carvaka philosophy with its bold independence of spirit was thought provoking and infused critical spirit into Indian philosophy.


  1. Balakrishna S. Pandit- A Simple Study of Indian Philosophy, Surjeet Book Depot, Delhi, 1969
  2. Dakshina Ranjan Shastri- A Short History of Indian Materialism, Sensationalism and Hedonism, Book Land Private Ltd, Calcutta, 1957
  3. Damodaran- Indian Thought- A Critical Survey, 1967
  4. Surendranath Dasgupta- History of Indian Philosophy, Vol- III, Cambridge University Press, 1952
  5. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya – Lokayata- A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism, People’s Publishing House, 1968
  6. Hiriyanna- The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 1949
  7. Jadunath Sinha- Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, Agra, 1949
  8. K.Mittal- Materialism in Indian Thought, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, Delhi, 1974
  9. Radhakrishnan- Indian Philosophy Vol-I, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 1941
  10. Ramakrishna Bhattacharya- Studies on the Caravaka/Lokayata, Anthem Press, London,2011
  11. A.Saletore- Historical Notices of the Lokayatas, pp: 386-397, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol-xxiii, Silver Jubilee Volume, B.O.R.I., Poona
  12. Satishchandra Chatterjee, Dheerendra Mohan Datta- An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, University of Calcutta, 1948

Tantra- A Brief Introduction, Part III

Tantra means a discipline or a system. The meaning includes the sense of a logically worked out self-consistent discipline. The discipline is both in the field of philosophy or metaphysics and in the field of religion or practical life. In other words Tantra means a philosophical discipline as well as a religious and cultural one1.

Tantric method of Worship

Tantras are essentially sadhana shastras. Sadhana be it spiritual or otherwise is that which produces siddhi or result sought for. The term sadhana comes from the root ‘sadha’ that is to exert, to strive and sadhana is therefore striving, practice, discipline, worship in order to obtain fruits thereof. In religious context it means spiritual advancement with its results of happiness either in this world or in heaven and liberation or moksha, which is free from cyclic orders of karma and rebirth2.

Tantric sadhana consists of two parts ritual worship (puja) and meditation (yoga). Both are of equal importance to every tantric. Even the siddha or avadhuta recognized to be so highly spiritual that he can afford to disregard rules applicable to ordinary tantrics continues to perform his daily puja along with his yogic practices3.

Types of Sadhakas (adepts)

The Tantras have classified mankind according to their pravrittih or bhava that is natural aptitudes and dispositions. According to Tantras these tendencies, dispositions and reactions to specific situations, environment and circumstances are the products of our past deeds in previous births and rebirths. Tantra places special emphasis on bhava suddhi or citta suddhi. Purification of mind, body, intellect and emotion is essential and indispensable for spiritual progress and such purification is to be attained by the specific sadhana known in Tantra as Bhuta Suddhi. Thus Tantra has classified mankind under three broad heads according to the pravrittih of the individuals, namely

  1. Pashu or man with animal disposition
  2. Vira or man with heroic disposition and
  3. Divya or man with divine disposition4

Seven Acharas

Closely associated with the bhavas, the Tantras have enjoined seven acharas or stages. An aspirant must rise step by step through the different acharas of self-realization till he reaches the seventh or the highest stage of ‘Life Divine’. The seven acharas mentioned in the Kularnava Tantra are Vedachara, Vaishnavachara, Shaivachara, Dakshinachara, Vamachara, Siddhantachara and Kaulachara5.

In the first stage cleanliness of the body and mind is cultivated. The second stage is that of devotion (bhakti). The third stage is that of knowledge (jnana). Dakshina which is the fourth stage is that in which the gains acquired in the preceding three stages are consolidated. This is followed by Vama which is the stage of renunciation. The sixth stage namely Siddhanta is that in which the aspirant comes to the definite conclusion after deliberate consideration as to the relative merits of the paths of enjoyment and that of renunciation. By pursuing the pursuing the path of renunciation the aspirant reaches the final stage of Kaula. This is the stage in which Kula or Brahman becomes a reality to him.

The first three of these seven; namely Veda, Vaishnava and Shaiva belongs to the pashubhava, Dakshina and Vama belong to the virabhava and the last two belongs to divyabhava6.

S.K.Ramachandra Rao gives a different interpretation to the seven acharas. According to him –

  1. Vedachara prescribes non-violent Vedic rites, on contemplation of the divinities in one’s body and on the repetition of the seed syllable ‘Aim’- all these being performed only in day time.
  2. The Vaishnavachara is an extension of the first one, but relying to a greater extent on the sacred mythology contained in the puranas, advocating the observance of vratas (like fasting, vegetarian diet, celibacy, avocation that is free from violence, restraint in speech, etc.), worship of personal gods (ishta devata, mostly Vishnu) during day time and repetition of sacred formulae (japa) during nights.
  3. The Shaivachara is likewise an extension of the Vedachara, with a sectarian variation relying on the smrtis as well as on Puranas which glorify Shiva; it advocates the observance of vratas and worship of personal gods (mostly male).
  4. The Dakshinachara popular in the southern region of the country, accepts female forms of divinities (Bhagavati) but conducts worship in accordance with the prescriptions of the Vedachara. It permits worship in the night in cemeteries, on the banks of rivers, but prohibits the use of liquor, meat, etc. and no sexual rites are allowed in any manner.
  5. In the Vamachara the female form of divinity is worshipped with the five makaras (wine, meat, fish, sexual union and parched grains) in the dead of the night and in communities of initiated male and female devotees.
  6. The Siddantachara adopts the Shaivite philosophy and while the usual tantric rite are performed, great importance is attached to Bhairava (terrible form of Shiva) the form which the devotees seek to assume.
  7. The Kaulachara while incorporating the details of Vamachara defies all rules and restrictions pertaining even to the sectarian rites. There is nothing that is barred for the devotee here: no place, no time and no conduct.

While votaries of the Vedic tradition hold the Vedachara as excellent and the Kaulachara as the least, the followers of Kaula sect hold the Kaulachara as the most excellent and the Vaishnavachara the least meritorious and is silent about Vedachara7.

Puja Sadhana

The importance of puja cannot be exaggerated. From the time of his initiation till the end of his life, every tantric is bound by the duty of performing his daily puja. Tantrics divide their ritual practices into three groups, nitya, naimittika and kamya. Nitya covers the group of rites regarded as being compulsory for a tantric to perform every day. Naimittika rites are observed on particular occasions and kamya rites are performed to fulfill a special wish or to avert a great misfortune8.

In nitya puja performances of ritual practices include both outward and inner worship (bahya and antara puja). This include reading shastras, practicing austerities (tapasya), ratiocination of the bija mantra (japa), recitation of the hymns (stotra patana), purification of both body and mind (bhutasuddhi and cittasuddhi), installation of vital energy to the deity (pranapratisthana)9, worship of yantra, mandala, performing of nyasa, mudra and pancha makaras.


The Tantra is obviously not attractive to the common man as it involves extraordinary effort and possession of attitudes which is different from and sometimes contrary to those which are normally held. Hence Tantrik practices are revealed only to the really serious. Thus initiation (diksha) is made an indispensable prerequisite for Tantrik practices. The importance of a teacher in the Tantra is very great and a text says that there can be no salvation without initiation and there can be no initiation without a teacher. The expression diksha is a compound of two ideas; di means ‘to give’ or ‘to endow’ divine qualities and ksha means ‘to destroy’ or ‘to remove’ the sins and obstructions thereby freeing the individual from phenomenal fetters. Diksha is a personal transmission of unseen but enormous power from the teacher to the pupil as effectively as possible and as confidentially as feasible10. Diksha or initiation has been considered to be the secret part of Tantra sadhana. The tantric mysteries are revealed only to the initiates. According to Sharada Tilaka initiation is that which gives spiritual knowledge (divya jnana) and brings the annihilation of baser propensities (papa). When a sadhaka takes initiation he comes to know the art of stopping further increase of samskaras. This art is known as Madhu Vidya. Diksha burns out all karmas, severs the bond of maya and brings the attainment of spiritual knowledge. Through initiation the Guru imparts the practical lesson to make use of mantra and yantra. Mantra is imparted during initiation and mantra which has not been received from a guru bears no fruit. Kularnava Tantra speaks of three kinds of diksha.

  • Sparsha Diksha- initiation by touch,
  • Drka Diksha- initiation by sight and
  • Manasa Diksha- initiation by thought11.


A mantra is any combination of letters believed to be of divine origin and used in order to evoke divine powers and to realize a communion of man with the divine source and essence of the universe12 .The expression ‘mantra’ is derived from two Sanskrit roots, man signifying ‘to reflect’ and rati signifying ‘to protect’. The significance is that the mantra is a sacred word or formula that is capable of protecting the person who thinks of it or utters it. The very process of thinking or uttering is said to generate a saving power: it protects the person from existing or possible errors, calamities and misadventures13. Mantras are grouped into three varieties;

  • Male- when they end with words such as ‘hum’, ‘phat’ and ‘vashat’.
  • Female- when they end with words such as ‘vaushat’ and ‘svaha’ and
  • Neutral- when they end with words with ‘namah’.

Male mantras are especially employed in magical rites, in the worship of ferocious divinities including goddesses and in sorcery. They are said to be vigorous and quick in effect but their spiritual value is minimal. The female mantras find use in enterprises with concrete benefits as objectives and the neutral mantras have spiritual progress as their goal.

Mantras are also classified on the basis of the number of syllables they contain. If there is a single syllable it is called pinda mantra, if there are two syllables it is called kartari. If the number of syllables ranges from three to nine it is called bija mantra and if the number of syllables exceeds nine but is not more than twenty it is called mantra. If the syllables are more than 20 the mantra becomes a mala mantra (string mantra) 14. The repetition of a mantra is known as japa and there are three varieties of japa.

  1. Vachika (uttered)- audible to others
  2. Upamsu (muttered)- audible to oneself only and
  3. Manasa (thought) – in entire silence, visualizing the deity of the mantras15.

Mantra sadhana is the main theme of Tantra. It is the life force of Tantrik cult. With the help of mantra a sadhaka attunes his individual existence with cosmic vibration and gets drenched in the divine effulgence. He becomes one with the divine being after losing his individuality. The realization of the non-dualistic existence is the main aim of mantra sadhana16.


Yantra is a geometrical diagram with abstract symbols inscribed on a flat surface like palm leaf, paper, etched on a metal sheet or stone slab and is an indispensible constituent of tantric sadhana17.

The Sanskrit word Yantra derives from the root Yam meaning to sustain, hold or support the energy inherent in a particular element, object or concept. The yantra is a sacred enclosure, a dwelling or receptacle of Ishtadevata (the chosen deity) and a substitute for an anthropomorphic image of the deity. A deity’s yantra bear no resemblance to the iconographic image and is its transform (para rupa), its abstract translation18.

All yantras are inscribed with mantras and the most important mantra associated with the yantra is generally inscribed in the center of the yantra, while other mantric letters are arranged in the spaces formed by the intersection of lines, either round the circle or on the lotus petals or on the outer square band of the yantra. These mantric letters are condensed with energy and are seen as vested with a spiritual power beyond human comprehension. Pronounced correctly, with the correct rhythm, intonation and mental attitude, a mantra becomes the soul of the yantra and a vitalizing force within the mind of the seeker19.

Pranapratisthana ceremony

In order to be accessible for worship, a yantra has to be infused with the vital force (prana) and this ritual is called pranapratisthana. The transfer of power to the yantra is achieved in several ways but one of the chief methods is through the breathing technique (pranayama). While the adept is in complete concentration, the devata is exhaled by pranic transmission through the right nostril as he chants an appropriate mantra. The breadth is exhaled over a red flower which he holds in his hand. The divine essence is thus communicated through the adept’s body on the flower. He then places the flower at the centre of the yantra which begins to be permeated with the spark of consciousness. Another method of infusing vital force into the yantra is by the means of symbolic finger gestures (Avahana mudra). The adept exhales his breadth on to the appropriate finger positions which he then slowly lets his closed hands descend on the yantra. Some ritual manuals also suggest a ceremony where the yantra is washed with several liquids which is symbolically suggestive of cleansing away impurities20.

After consecrating the yantra by means of pranapratisthana, the adept begins his meditation by fixing his attention (concentration) on the yantra’s periphery and finally proceeds towards the center called bindu21.

Visarjana ceremony

At the end of the puja the yantra is symbolically forsaken in a rite known as visarjana- the dissolution of the yantra. Using a finger gesture (generally yoni mudra) and pronouncing the appropriate mantra the adept dismisses the deity contained in the yantra. The deity is then brought back into the adept’s heart from where it was first installed into the yantra either by the adept’s inhaling his breadth or smelling the flower through which the deity was first installed during the pranapratisthana ceremony22.

Types of Yantra

There are three types of yantras

  • Raksha yantras- yantras for magical purposes generally called protective yantras
  • Pujana yantras or Devata yantras- yantras for actualizing divinites and
  • Dhyana yantras- yantras that facilitate meditation

Raksha yantras are of two types, beneficent ones (soumya or aghora) and the malevolent ones (krura or ghora). The former kind of yantras are employed to ward off evil, cure disease, bring about peace of mind, recover lost property, help growth of children, facilitate trade or agriculture, gain celebrity and so on. The latter kind of yantras are meant to kill the enemy or harm him in occult fashion, to confound his mind and drive him mad, to invoke misfortune on a household and so on23.

The devata yantras are also magical yantras but are deity specific and to be effective they entail the performance of certain appropriate worship rituals.  Only when they are properly attended upon do they acquire potency. In these yantras the deities are often represented by the seed syllable (bija akshara) appropriate to the deity inscribed at the central point (bindu). The mantra that is specific to the deity is supposed to be powerful and if properly communicated and assiduously recited transforms the phenomenal consciousness of the devotee into deity consciousness. The devata yantras are meant to achieve all mundane and spiritual aspiration, bring prosperity to the family and eliminate obstacles on the path of spiritual progress24.

The Dhyana yantras are devices for concentrating the mind, focusing attention and channelizing consciousness. Meditation on these yantras involves mantras and mudras. The dhyana yantra represents the field of consciousness and the mantra as the vocalized formula for repetition represents the expressive faculty of consciousness (vac) and mudra as physical posture and gesture represents the material vehicle in which the consciousness is embodied and through which it works. When a deity is also employed to preside over the yantra it is as a unifying agent25.


Mandala is defined as ‘that which gathers the essential details’. Mandala denotes an act of concentration of all the significant details of the worlds, or of a doctrine, of one’s own constitution or of his own mind. It is also the place where such concentration is facilitated. As an act of concentration it gathers up the inner energies and as a place of concentration it brings together the outer energies26.

In tantric traditions the term mandala often refers to a space with a special structure that is enclosed and delimited by a circumferential line and into which a deity or deities are invited by means of mantras. This space is often a circle, but may also appear as a square, triangle or another shape. The various shapes and structures of mandalas are based on the traditions of the different schools, ritual applications, the deities worshipped and the practitioner’s qualifications, and goals. Mandalas are prepared from various materials including coloured powders, precious stones, fruits and leaves and fragrant substances27.

Mandalas are used in ceremonial sequences like consecrating the place of worship, placement of the ritual jar or kalasha, placement of the lamp symbolizing god or goddess, preparing the ground for making food offerings or naivedya, in the initiatory rites (diksha vidhi) and as aids in meditations. The folk design known as rangoli which has now turned out to be a purely decorative art was originally meant as a protective device; to protect the house from evil influences, to protect the place where an auspicious function is to take place from possible harm, to sanctify the ground on which worship is conducted28.

The ritual pertaining to the mandala which activate the hidden forces both within the external diagram and in the devotee’s constitution involve the proper positioning of the tutelary deities (kula devatas) captains (nayika), aids (yogini) and guards (mudra devatas). Their locations are determined according to the tantric prescriptions and the purpose for which the mandala is used. The placement of the retinue divinities is sometimes accomplished by inscribing appropriate letters of the alphabet in different areas of the mandala. The Sanskrit alphabet is regarded as the vocal epitome of the entire universe and each letter is transformed into energy when introduced into the mandala29.

Whether it is called a Chakra, Mandala or Yantra, the instrument is a sphere of influence, a consecrated ground, an arena for the play of thoughts, feelings and forces both inside the devotee and outside him. It is an instrument that is employed to activate energies, stimulate thoughts, harmonize feelings and coordinate inner and outer forces. It is rightly described as a psycho cosmogram30.

Differences between a Yantra and a Mandala

  1. A Mandala is used in the case of any devata whereas a yantra is appropriate to a specific devata. Mandala represents the microcosm and accommodates a pantheon of deities who are positioned in it according to rank. A yantra on the other land is the domain of a single deity but may include that deity’s retinue.
  2. Mandalas are used in secret as well as public ceremonies whereas yantras have more restricted use
  3. Mandalas are usually objects for temporary ritual use. The deities are invoked into them and dismissed at the end of the ritual. Yantras on the other hand are made of permanent material in which a deity has been invoked and usually kept in the temple or shrine for continued worship. But it must be added that many yantras are made for temporary use like the mandala.
  4. In yantras mantras are inscribed at the time of manufacturing it while mandalas are first constructed and only later deities are invoked into them with mantras. However later texts enjoin that yantras be first prepared and then infused with life in a special ritual called pranapratisthana with the help of mantras
  5. A general characteristic of yantra’s is that they are small in size. In contrast mandala vary in size and can be large enough to allow for priest or initiands to enter them through doors and walk around in them; for example during an initiation ceremony (diksha vidhi)
  6. With the exception of yantras installed permanently for worship in temples and mathas, yantras are generally mobile whereas mandalas are not.
  7. While mandalas can employ different colour schemes, the use of colour is less common if not irrelevant in the case of most yantras.
  8. While pictorial representation of deities can appear in mandalas, such images are generally not found in yantras31.


Mudra is another characteristic item in Tantrik ritual. The word mudra has several meanings, four of which have a bearing on Tantrik practices.

  • It means a posture in yogic practices in which the whole body plays a part.
  • It also means the symbolic or mystic intertwining of the fingers and hands as part of religious worship.
  • Mudra is also the fourth of the five makaras and means various kinds of grains mixed with ghee or other ingredient or parched grains.
  • A fourth meaning of mudra is the woman with whom a Tantrik yogi associates himself.

According to Kularnava the word mudra is derived from ‘mud’ which means delight or pleasure. These mudras (ritual finger and hand poses) should be shown (in worship) as they give delight to the gods and make their minds melt (with compassion for the worshippers)32.

Mudras (hand poses) according to Pujaprakasha are to be made in worship at the time of japa, dhyana (contemplation) and when starting on kamya rites (performed for securing some desired objects) and that they tend to bring the deity worshipped near to the worshipper. The Nityacarapaddhati says that mudra is so called because it gives delight to the gods and also puts to flight asuras (evil beings)33.

Raghavabhatta states that the fingers from the thumb to the small finger are identified with the five elements namely akasha (sky or ether), wind, fire, water and earth and that their contact with each other tends to make the deity favourable and delighted and induces the deity to be present at the worship, and that various appropriate mudras are to be employed in worship at the time japa, in meditation and in all rites performed for securing some desired objects or benefits. It was supposed that mudras helped in enhancing concentration on the part of the worshipper34.

There is a great divergence among the tantras, puranas and yoga works on the number, names and definitions of mudras. The Sharadatilaka names nine mudras while the Vishnusamhita says that mudras are innumerable and names about 30. The Jnanarnave mentions at least 19 mudras and Jayakhyasamhita about 58 mudras35. The Kalikapurana states that there are 108 mudras, 55 for general worship and 53 on special occasions such as collecting materials, drama and acting36.

The tantric works provide that mudras should be practiced secretly under cover of a garment and not in the presence of many people and should not be announced to another as otherwise they become fruitless37.

It is likely that the mudras in the Hindu and Buddhist tantric works are based on the poses that were evolved in ancient Indian dance and drama and we find their earliest extant description in Bharata natyasastra and that also in later medieval works on dramaturgy such as the Abhinayadarpana38.


One of the important items in the tantric ritual and worship is Nyasa which means mentally invoking a god or gods, mantras and holy texts to come to occupy certain parts of the  body in order to render the body a pure and fit receptacle for worship and meditation. The word Nyasa literally means ‘placing or depositing in or on’ and it is done by touching the chest and other limbs with the tips of the fingers and the palm of the right hand accompanied by mantras. There are several kinds of nyasa such as hamsanyasa, pranavanyasa, matrkanyasa, karanyasa, mantranyasa, anganyasa, pithanyasa, etc.39 The tantric concept of nyasa became popular in other forms of Indian religious systems as well and we have Puranic references to this practices. The medieval digests on the Dharamasastras also show that nyasa was taken over from Tantrik works in the puranas and other texts for the rites of the orthodox peoples40.

The aim of nyasa is to stimulate the nerve centre and consequently equitable distribution of powers (shaktis) so that the spiritual adepts (sadhakas) by shaking off the discordant notes and distracting tendencies of the mind can keep the bodily centres steady41.

Pancha Makaras

For the worship of Shakti the panchamakara or panchatattva are declared to be essential. According to Mahanirvana without panchatattva in one form or another Sakti puja cannot be performed. The reason of this is that those who worship Sakti worship divinity as creatrix and in the form of the universe. If she appears as and in natural function, she must be worshipped there with otherwise as the Tantra cited says worship is fruitless. The mother of the universe must be worshipped with these five elements namely wine, meat, fish, gram and woman or their substitutes. By their use the universe (Jagad Brahmanda) itself is used as the article of worship. The Mahanirvana says that wine which gives joy and dispels the sorrow of men is fire, flesh which nourishes and increase the strength of mind and body is air, fish which increases generative power is water, cereals grown on earth and which are the basis of life are earth and sexual union which is the root of the world and the origin of all creation is ether42.

Generally it is thought that in vamachara, woman play an important role. But this is only partially true in the case of those sadhakas who worship with Shakti according to vamachara rites. But among the vamacharis there are even brahmacharis, sadhakas and followers of the Nathas who never indulge in this type of Shakti worship. The Kalamukhas and the Kalavisas worship the kumaris only up to the age of nine and the Brahma Kaulas refrain even from wine and meat. All these means that this kind of worship is restricted to one section of the vamacharis namely the vira class while the pashu and divya classes are prohibited from performing it. There are still further restrictions that a sadhaka should perform this worship with his own wife (svakiya Sakti) and only in the case when there is no wife he may take some other Sakti for the purpose of ritual worship only43.

According to Tantrics the performance of the panchatattva sadhana helps one attain siddhi. The panchatattva sadhana are of various types namely pratyaksha (real type), Anukalpa (substitution type) and Divya (esoteric type). In the anukalpa type gingers is substituted for meat and coconut water for wine and in the Divya type materials are substituted by symbols. Only in the Pratyaksha type real objects are used and even here there are injunction against unrestrained indulgence of flesh, wine and woman44.

A sadhaka is to practice these rites for gaining the highest object namely the unification with Shiva or God leading to emancipation. The expression panchamakaras derive its name from the initial letters of the ingredients, madya (wine), mamsa (meat), matsya (fish), mudra (cereals) and maithuna (coitus)45 .

Thought out worldly these rites appear much abhorrent, there is a great esoteric meaning behind these. All these wine, meat, fish and woman are objects of temptation and it is very difficult to overcome them. Worship of a young damsel as a goddess and taking of wine for the purpose of concentrating his mind on the object of devotion only is something very difficult and requires the training of mind. The sadhaka has to relinquish his own desire and self and convert the various pursuits of enjoyment into instruments of spiritual discipline. The esoteric meaning of the five makaras is like this-

  1. Madya- the nectrine stream that issues from the cavity of brain is called madya or wine
  2. Mamsa- by this term we mean the control of speech which is only possible in case of the yogis
  3. Matsya- by fish we mean the system of respiration, drawn in and sent out. So the worshipper of fish means one who has controlled his vital breaths, this is called pranayama
  4. Mudra- it means the residing place of the soul in the body and one who acquires the knowledge of this charming soul is the worshipper of mudra
  5. Maithuna- the most important of all these is the practice of maithuna. It is observed-‘cohabitation is at the root of creation, preservation and destruction; it is regarded as a great principle in scriptures and it achieves all ends and confers the most difficult knowledge of Brahman. The meaning of maithuna here is the recitation of various attributes of God or unification with God.

Thus we can say that this panchamakara worship is not at all corrupt in spirit as it is supposed to be. The aims are very high and these are various instruments of spiritual discipline46.

Chakra Puja

Worship with the panchatattva generally takes place when pupils of the same guru parampara gather together in a close and small circle, each accompanied by his female partner called shakti. The lord of the chakra (chakresvara or convener) presides with his shakti in the center. The convener conducts the nitya puja including a much simpler form of suvasini puja or duti puja (worship of a woman). Each member of the group performs the rite of purifying the tattvas by drinking a little alcoholic drink and eating the cooked meat and fish. In this ritual the worshipper must purify wine, fish and flesh before he dedicates them to the deity according to prescribed rituals accompanied with proper mantras. The rest of the puja follows the same pattern as in suvasini puja. After all the rites have been completed and the food has been eaten sexual acts takes place.

Chakra Puja are of different types like Deva Chakra, Raja Chakra, Veera Chakra, Bhairavi Chakra, etc. where female agents are worshipped as the great mother by the devotee unruffled by passions and temptation of meat of birds or beasts which is nothing but sacrificing of attachment and animality. Chakra Puja is a special mode of yoga sadhana undertaken only on special occasions in which only the highly spiritually advanced persons can take part. Persons who have complete self-control and mastery over senses may gather together in a chakra and worship the great goddess in the midst of the objects of great temptations such as wine, women, etc., a fiery ordeal for a worshipper which the Tantra forbid for men of animal proclivities47.

Shava sadhana or corpse ritual

A peculiar type of Tantric ritual is shava sadhana or corpse ritual. Only a Vira type sadhaka is entitled to perform this rite. On a selected new moon day a sadhaka acquires in a cemetery a fresh dead body which is disease free and one who has died of an accident. The corpse is washed and sanctified with mantras, mudras and nyasa. The sadhaka then sits on the corpse and pours alcoholic drinks into the corpse mouth and feeds it with cooked meat. According to Vira Cudamani, the rituals also involves offering of wine and food to the 64 Yoginis and culminates with copulation performed by the sadhaka and his female partner over the corpse. It is said that the sadhaka will experience terrifying sights and sounds during the course of the rite and if he is not frightened by all these, he will have mantrasiddi- that is command over every aspect of life48.

Yoga Sadhana

The second part of tantric sadhana is yoga. Yoga is generally classified into four categories, mantra yoga, hatha yoga, laya yoga and raja yoga. Each of these forms has eight subservient called eight limbs or astanga which are yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratiharya, dharana, dhayana and samadhi. The first five are known as exterior methods (bahiranga), chiefly concerned with the body and the last three are inner method (antaranga) employed for the development of the mind49.

Mantra yoga is the simplest form of yoga. This yoga is helpful for an aspirant to gain control over his mind by uttering the mantras as imparted by his guru and by concentrating on images of gods, yantras, mandalas, emblems, etc.

Human mind is controlled by prana. When the breadth is kept under control the outward movement of the mind comes to an end. In this connection Hatha yoga prescribes a number of asanas, mudras and pranayama; by practicing which an aspirant can acquire control of his mind and body.

Laya yoga is a higher form of Hatha yoga. It is specially connected with the functioning of Kundalini and that is why the tantras lay great emphasis on this form of yoga. Laya yoga corresponds to the fifth, sixth and seventh stages of the astanga yoga, namely pratyahara, dharana and dhyana. By practicing Laya yoga, an aspirant rouses his Kundalini and finds his prana merged into vishwa prana.

Raja yoga is the fourth stage in yoga and corresponds to Samadhi as mentioned in astanga yoga. In this state the sadhaka loses his own entity in paramatma which he finds pervading the universe. It is the highest form of yoga through which nirvikalpa Samadhi is attained50.

Kundalini Yoga

The Sanskrit word Kundalini means ‘coiled-up’. The coiled Kundalini is the female energy existing in latent form in every human being.  It is the infinitesimal part of the cosmic energy (Shakti) which lies asleep in the individual muladhara. The object of the tantric practice of Kundalini yoga is to awaken her and bring her up to the point just above the top of the susumna called the sahasrara chakra where the cosmic energy resides. By merging her with the cosmic energy the individual is able to obtain spiritual release from the bondage of this world and everything worldly51.

The fundamental principle of the tantra shastra is that man is a microcosm (kshudra brahmanda) whatever exists in the outer universe exist in him. All the tattvas and the world are within him and so are the supreme Shiva and Shakti52. Hence the yogin’s spine is compared to Meru, the cosmic central mountain and is called brahmadanda (Brahma’s stick). Thus the centre of the yogin’s mystic body is the centre of the world. The Susumna is inside it hollow like a bamboo. In the susumna exists the entire manifest world in concentrated form. Ranged vertically along it are the six centres called wheels (chakras) each of which is conceived as a stylized lotus inhabited by a deity and containing the constituents of both physical and sonic creation53.

The six chakras that lie along the axis of the spine are consciousness potentials and are to be understood as situated not in the gross body but in the subtle or etheric body. These chakras are-

  1. Muladhara- situated at the base of the spine
  2. Svadhisthana- situated around the prostatic plexus (near the generative organ
  3. Manipura- situated around the navel
  4. Anahata- situated near the heart
  5. Visuddha- situated behind the throat and
  6. Ajna- situated between the eyebrows

Situated four fingers breadth above the top of the head is the Sahasrara the transcendent chakra. The Sahasrara chakra is said to be the region of Shiva, pure consciousness while the Muladhara chakra is the seat of Shakti whose form here is Kundalini. Through certain prescribed discipline the Kundalini Shakti rises through the psychic centres (six chakras mentioned above) until it reaches its full flowering that is fusion with the Absolute in Sahasrara as Kula Kundalini, generally bliss consciousness (Ananda) from the union of Shiva-Shakti54.

The awakening of the Kundalini power is a physic psycho spiritual process which has the following three aspects-

  1. Generate an intense desire to attain cosmic consciousness
  2. Chanting a mantra to generate vibrations of appropriate wavelength to awaken the Kundalini to which she is attuned and send her upward to penetrate the chakra one by one and
  3. Meditation upon a yantra to attain an inner visualization of the process to guide it through its successive stages55.

Occult powers through Tantric sadhana

A sadhaka acquires siddhis or miraculous powers through tantric sadhana; especially when the Kundalini is awakened. Some of these siddhis are living without food, duplicating one’s body, rising from the dead, gaining knowledge of the heavenly worlds, of planets, stars and the whole cosmos56. The Tantric text Prapancasara enumerates eight siddhis namely-

  1. Anima- that is power of making one’s body as minute as an atom
  2. Garima- power of increasing the weight of one’s body
  3. Mahima- power to magnify one’s body
  4. Laghima- power to levitate one’s body
  5. Ishitwa- sovereignty over all things
  6. Vishitwa- power of charming
  7. Prapti- power of getting anything
  8. Prakamya- non obstruction of desire

and states that one who is endowed with these eight siddhis is a liberated soul57. Another text Sadhanamala mentions eight siddhis like-

  1. Khadga- a sword sanctified by spells for success in the battle field
  2. Anjana- collyrium which when applied to the eyes enables one to see buried things.
  3. Padalepa- ointment applied to the feet enabling one to move anywhere unnoticed
  4. Antardhana- to be invisible
  5. Rasarasayana- transforming baser metal into gold and preparing the drug of immortality
  6. Khecara- to fly in the sky
  7. Bhucara- going swiftly anywhere
  8. Patalasiddhi- diving underneath the earth

The text also mentions that by means of certain mantras the wealth of Kubera can be appropriated and gods like Hari, Indra, Brahma and others and also apsaras or heavenly damsels can be utilized as servants. Even for defeating opponents in public discussions the mantras are efficacious58.

Lakshmidhara in his commentary on the Saundaryalahari throws light on the content of 64 Tantras which in general deal with way leading to the acquisition of certain supernormal powers or siddhis. For instance Mahamaya Tantra and Shambara Tantra describes the manner in which illusory world is created by the power of Maya Shakti which is designated as Mohini Vidya. The Yoginijala Shambara Tantra describes the way to make one tattva appear as the other tattva. For instance prithvitattva appear as jalatattva or vice versa. Siddhi Bhairava Tantra, Kankala Bhairava Tantra, Kala Bhairava Tantra, etc. describes the way to acquisition of worldly treasure (nidhi vidya). There is a group of eight Yamala Tantra which deal with Kaya siddhi that is making the physical body develop super human powers59. It is said that Ramakrishna Paramahamsa had acquired occult powers through practice of tantric sadhana. He had perfected all the 64 tantric sadhanas belonging to Vishnukranta group within two years60.



  1. Kamalakar Mishra- Kashmir Shaivism– The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1999, p.35
  2. Manoranjan Basu- Fundamental of the Philosophy of Tantras, Mira Basu Publishers, Calcutta, 1986, p.433
  3. Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- Hindu Tantrism, Publishers, E.J.Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1979, p.121
  4. Nando Lall Kundu- Constructive Philosophy of India, vol- II (Tantra), Calcutta, pp:9,10
  5. Ibid, pp:11,12
  6. Studies on the Tantras– Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1989, pp:59,60
  7. K.Ramachandra Rao- The Tantra of Sri Chakra, Sharada Prakashana, Bangalore, 1983, pp:23-25
  8. Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- cit, pp:124,125
  9. Manoranjan Basu- cit, p.470
  10. K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, Sri Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 2008, pp:48,49
  11. Lalan Prasad Singh- Tantra- Its Mystic and Scientific Basis, Concept Publishing Company Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2010, pp:117-119
  12. Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- cit, p.101
  13. K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.85
  14. Ibid, pp:89,90
  15. Ibid, pp:87,88
  16. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.97
  17. Madhu Khanna- Yantra- The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity, Thames and Hudson, London, 1994, preface, p.10 and S.K.Ramachandra Rao- The Yantras, Sri Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 1988, p.29
  18. Madhu Khanna- cit, pp:11,12
  19. Ibid, p.34
  20. Ibid, pp:98-100
  21. Ibid, p.108
  22. Ibid, p.106
  23. K.Ramachandra Rao- The Yantras, pp:19,20
  24. Ibid, pp:23-36
  25. Ibid, pp:27,28
  26. K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, p.iv
  27. Gudrun Buhnemann et al- Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions, D.K.Print World (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2007, p.13
  28. K.Ramachandra Rao- The Yantras, p.15
  29. K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.11
  30. K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, p.v
  31. Gudrun Buhnemann et al- cit, pp:17,18,28,29
  32. V.Kane –History of Dharmashastra, Vol V, part –II, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1962, p.1123
  33. V.Kane –History of Dharmashastra, Vol II, part –I, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1941, p.320
  34. V.Kane –History of Dharmashastra, Vol V, part –II, p.1124
  35. Ibid, p.1125
  36. Ibid, p.1128
  37. Ibid, pp:1125,1126
  38. Ibid, p.1129
  39. Ibid, p.1119
  40. N.Battacharyya- History of the Tantric Religion, Manohar, 2005, p.306
  41. Manoranjan Basu- cit, p.477
  42. Sir John Woodroffe- Sakti and Sakta, 3rd edition, Celephais Press, 2009, pp:565,566
  43. Pushpendra Kumar- Sakti Cult in Ancient India, Bhartiya Publishing House, Varanasi, 1974, pp:164,165
  44. Ibid, p.165
  45. Ibid
  46. Ibid, pp:166,167
  47. Sir John Woodroffe- cit, p.573; Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- Op.cit, p.155 and Bose & Haldar- Tantras- Their Philosophy and Occult Secrets, Firma KLM Private Ltd, Calcutta, 1981, pp: 144,145,149,150
  48. Vidya Dehijia- Yogini Cult and Temples- A Tantric Tradition, Published by National Museum, Janpath, New Delhi, 1986, p.59; Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- cit, pp:161,162; N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.137
  49. N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.308
  50. N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, pp:309-311; Bose & Haldar- Op.cit, pp:161-164
  51. Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- cit, p.171; Ajit Mookerjee- KundaliniThe Arousal of the inner Energy, Destiny Books, Vermount, 1986, p. 9
  52. Sir John Woodroffe- cit, pp: 636,637
  53. Sanjukta Gupta, Dirk Jan Hoens, Teun Goudriaan- cit, p.171
  54. Ajit Mookerjee- cit, pp:11,12
  55. Victor M. Fic- The Tantras- Its Origin, Theories, Art and Diffusion from India to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan and Indonesia, Abhinav Publications, 2003, pp: 35,36
  56. Ajit Mookerjee- cit, pp:77,78
  57. N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.148
  58. Ibid
  59. Deba Brata Sen Sharma- Studies in Tantra Yoga, Natraj Publishing House, Karnal, Haryana, 1985, pp:16,17
  60. Prabuddha Bharata, January 2016, Vol-121, No.1, p. 25

Tantra- A Brief Introduction, Part II

Tantra is an important, practical and popular religious path of Hinduism. It is a repertoire of spiritual practices which is concerned with the application of the science of cosmic principles (tattva) and the science of mystic sound (mantra) with a view to the attainment of spiritual ascendancy1

Classification of Hindu Tantric Literature

According to the tradition found in Tantric texts themselves Tantras are innumerable. The Saundaryalahari refers to 64 Tantras. The Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta states that there are three groups of ten, eighteen and sixty-four Shaiva tantas. In the Mahasiddhasaratantra, India and its adjoining regions are divided into three krantas or divisions namely Vishnukranta (extended from Vindhya hills up to Chittagong and included all places in North-Eastern region), Rathakranta (comprised of the entire area in the North-Western region which lay between the Vindhyas and Mahachina or Tibet) and Ashvakranta (extended from the Vindhyas the southern oceans); each of these krantas is said to has 64 tantras. A number of tantric texts speak of nine or six amnayas or regions- eastern, western, northern, southern, upper and lower- each containing its distinctive texts, cults and rituals. From geographical point of view tantra are divided into four classes, viz. Kerala, Kashmira, Gauda and Vilasa2.

Tantra texts are classified into Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina tantras; Hindu tantras are broadly divided into two classes, Agama and Nigama. In the former Shiva answers questions asked by Parvathi and in the Nigama Parvathi answers questions asked by Shiva. In accordance with the predominance of the deities Hindu Tantras are also classified into Shakta, Shaiva, Vaishnava, Saurya and Ganapatya. The works of Shakta, Shaiva and Vaishnava are called respectively Tantras, Agamas and Samhitas3. Some divide tantric texts into the following group- Agama, Damara, Yamala and Tantra4.

The Damara tantra is dedicated to Lord Shiva and his mystical teachings. Damara has several meaning; it means ‘wonder’, ‘goblin’ or an attendant of Shiva. The Damara tantra includeds Yogadamara, Shivadamara, Durgadamara, Sarasvatadamara, Gandharvadamara, Brahmadamara, etc.5 It is not clear what was the characteristic feature of Damara except that they were preoccupied with magic or exorcism6.

The Yamala tantra contains the secret conversations between different deities and their respective consorts. The word Yamala literally means twins, united or a couple. The Yamala tantra includes texts like Rudrayamala, Vishnuyamala, Brahmayamala, Lakshmiyamala, Umayamala, Skandayamala, Adityayamala, and Bhairavayamala among others7. The Yamala indicate a great development in the tantrika sadhana not only by trying to define for the first time the various tantric traditions but also by introducing a great variety of cults of new gods and goddesses. They open the field of tantric sadhana to people of all castes8. In the Yamalas the sadhana of the Agamas assumes a pronounced character of Shaktism. The religion of Agamas had developed through two channels, one exoteric and the other esoteric. The former continued as a part of Shaivism with greater emphasis on the devotional aspect of the worship of Shiva and Pashupati with a view to attain liberation. The latter centered as Shaktism with greater emphasis on various Shakti cult not so much as to attain liberation but to gain ascendancy and control over the forces of nature, liberation was too small a goal for them. In course of time (around 10th century A.D.) the literature of pure Shavism ceased to be called Tantra and Tantra proper became more Shaktic in character9.

Literature of Vaishnava Tantras

The Vaishnava Tantras are represented by the Pancaratra Agamas and Vaikhanasa Agamas which were originally voluminous in form but unfortunately a considerable part of them has now been lost. The Vaishnava Agamas said to be 108 in number seem to be developments of the Bhagavata and Pancharatra and the Sattvata schools which are mentioned in the Mahabharatha. The differentiation into schools seems to have originally depended on the specific mantra, which was the shibboleth of each school. Thus it appears that the Bhagavatas adopted the 12 lettered mantra and Pancharatras the 8 lettered one. The fundamental ideas and practices of the Bhagavatas have been adopted by the Ramanuja, Madhava and the later schools of bhakti. The 108 Agamas are all called Pancharatra Agamas10.

According to the Narada Pancaratra, ratra means knowledge; hence Pancaratra is a system which deals with five kinds of knowledge, cosmology (tatva), the science of liberation, (muktiprada), of devotion (bhaktiprada), of yoga (yaugika) and pertaining to the senses (vaishesika). According to Ishvara Samhita the religion that was taught by the gods to five sages; Shandilya, Aupagayana, Maunjayana, Kaushika and Bharadvaja, in five successive days and nights came to be known among the people as Pancaratra. According to Padma Tantra the system is so named because just as the sun dispels the night, the Pancaratra dispels the other five systems which are the Yoga, Samkya, Buddhism, Jainism and Pashupata11. Although tradition mention 108 Samhita there are actually mention of more than 215 of which however only very few have been published12.

The well-known Pancharatra Agamas are the Ahirbudhnya Samhita, Jayakhya Samhita, Vishnu Samhita, and Satvata Samhita. Of the Vaikhanasa School only four namely Vaikhanasa Mantra Samhita, Vaikhanasa Grhyasutra, Dharmasutra and Shrautasutra are now available13. Other important works of belonging to Vaishnava Tantras are Ishvarasamhita, Paramasamhita, Paushkarasamhita and Lakshmi Tantra.

Literature of Shaiva Tantras

The literature belonging to Shaiva and Shakta tantricism is extensive. There is a great deal of affinity between these two schools of thought so much so that there is considerable overlapping between them so far as metaphysical theory and ritualistic principles are concerned. It is sometimes very difficult to differentiate between the two schools in the tantric texts belonging to these two schools.

According to traditions the total number of Shaiva Tantras is 28 which include ten Shaivagamas or Shaiva Tantras and 18 Raudragamas. While the Shaivagamas propagate dualistic philosophy the Raudagamas propagate monistic cum dualistic philosophy. The names of these Agamas differ in different texts. Apart from the above texts there is a group of 64 Bhairava Tantras which preach purely monistic Shaiva philosophy14. Some of the important works belonging to the Kashmir school of Shaivism are Abhinavagupta’s Tantraloka, Tantrasara, Pratyabhijnavimarshini and Pratyabhijnakarika; Sivasutra, Malinivijaya, Vijnanabhairava, Rudrayamala, Svayambhuva, etc15.

Literature of Shakta Tantras

There are 77 Shakta Agamas subdivided into five Shubhagamas, 64 Kaulagamas and eight Mishragamas16. The tenets of the Samaya schools are contained in five agamas known as shubhaagama panchaka which are regarded as interpretations of the Veda by Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara, Vasishta and Shuka. The Mishra literature is contained in eight agamas namely Chandrakala, Jyotsnavati, Kalanidhi, Kularnava, Kuleshvari, Bhuvaneshvari, Barhaspatya and Durvasas17.   Some of the published Kaula works are Kularnava Tantra, Kula Chudamani, Kaulavali, Vamakesvara Tantra, Meru Tantra, Gandharva Tantra, Sambhava Tantra, Rudrayamala, Bramananda Tantra, Sri tattvachintamani, Tantraraja, etc. Works like Kaula Tantra, Kulasasana, Kuladipani, Tantrachudamani, Agamasara, etc are available in manuscript form deposited in different libararies18.  Other important Shakta tantric works include Mahanirvana, Tantraraja, Kalivilasa, Jnanarnava, Sharadatilaka and Varivasyarahasya19.

Tantric Denominations

The Tantra worshippers are divided into various sects and sub sects based on deities worshipped and the ritualistic procedure followed. The Shaktisangama Tantra refers to the sects of Vaishnavas, Shaivas, Ganapatyas, Svayambhuvas, Candras, Pashupatas, Cinas, Jainas, Kalamukhas and Vaidikas. But judged by the number of followers they have we have three major sects, namely Shaiva (worshippers of Shiva), Shakta (worshippers of Shakti or divine mother) and Vaishnava (worshipper of Vishnu) and two minor sects, namely Ganapatyas (worshippers of Ganesha) and Souras (worshippers of Surya the sun god). These sects are once again subdivided into various sub-sects20.

According to Lalan Prasad Singh the Vaishnava, Shaiva and Shakta are the metaphysical schools of Tantra; Avidya, Upavidya and Vidya are the esoteric division of Tantra and Dakshinacara, Vamachara and Madhyamacara the psychological schools of Tantra21.

In the view of Kamalakar Mishra there are several traditions and sub traditions of Tantra in India, some of which have become extinct and some still living. Accordingly the living traditions are classified under three major denominations namely Shaiva-Shakta Tantra, Buddhist Tantra and Vaishnava Tantra. All the sub trend of Tantrism can be placed under one or the other denomination. For example the Natha tradition of Gorakhanatha and the Aghora tradition of Kinarama can be regarded as branches of Shaiva Shakta Tantra. Similarly the Sahajiya cult of Bengal which might have originated from the Buddhist Sahajayana and later on taken Vaishnava form can be safely classified as Vaishnava Tantra. The Baul tradition of eastern India seems to be a combination of Buddhist Tantra, Vaishnava Tantra and Islamic Sufism. The Kapalika tradition which flourished in the medieval period is now virtually extinct is an off shoot of Buddhist Tantra with a mixture of Shaiva-Shakta Tantra. The cults of Shaiva-Shakta Tantra are divided into two lineages, the Girnari and Newari. Girnar in Gujarat is the seat of Lord Dattatreya and he is regarded as the original leader of Shaiva-Shakta Tantra. The followers of Aghora tradition owe their allegiance to Dattatreya and are called Girnaris. Newar is the sub Himalayan region chiefly Nepal. The followers of Natha tradition are mainly Newari22.

Tantric Buddhism

According to Benoytosh Bhattacharyya the founder of Buddhist Tantrism was Buddha and he was initiated into the mysticism of the Tantra by Sanjaya, a great tantric yogin of the day. The Jatakas speak of Buddha performing miracles. Only the closest disciples of Buddha practiced tantra and the general laity was kept away from it as they had not reached an advance stage of spiritual development. The secret conclaves of the Buddhist tantrics developed into a large underground organization known as Guhyasamajas which practiced the new doctrines in secret (guhya). The teachings of Guhyasamajas emerged as a respectable teaching during the time of Nagarjuna around 300 A.D. and evolved as the Vajrayana school of Tantrism. One of the main teachings of this school was that without suffering the multiple reincarnations and even during one’s birth and by indulging in all objects of earthly enjoyment one could attain Buddhahood. The Guhyasamaja integrated into the system of Vajrayana Tantrism all form of mysticism, various forms of yoga, mystic poses, sacred diagrams, mandala, mantras, dhyani Buddhas and their Shakti deities, etc. While Vajrayana represents the most influential school of Tantric Buddhism, other major schools which evolved are Sahajayana, Kalachakrayana and Mantrayana23.

Difference between Buddhist Tantrism and Hindu Tantrism

Benoytosh Bhattacharyya emphatically states that Buddhists were the first to introduce the Tantra into their religion and the Hindus borrowed them from the Buddhist in later times. In Hindu Tantrism the union of Shiva and Shakti leads to the creation of a new world; while in tantric Buddhism Shakti represents prajna, the supreme knowledge and wisdom and her  union of the male deity Kalacakra does not create a new world but leads to Nirvana, the supreme bliss, knowledge and enlightenment24. Some of the important Buddhist tantric works are Advaya Siddi, Arya Manjusri Mulakalpa, Sambhara Tantra, Guhya Siddi, Hevajra Tantra, Kalacakra Tantra, Mahakala Tantra, Sadhana Mala, etc.25

Schools of Shaiva Tantras

The Shaiva schools are so intimately allied to the Shakta schools that the literature and doctrines of one are quoted as authoritative by the other. The chief characteristic of the Shaiva School is that Shiva is the prominent being and especially in the later developments of these schools, Shakti is almost negligible factor of the cosmos26.

The worshippers of Shaiva are referred under four groups namely Shaivas, the Pashupatas, the Karunikasiddhantins and the Kapalikas. The name Kathakasiddhantins and Kalamukhas are referred in place of Karunikasiddhantins in other sources. The Viraagama refers to four schools of Shaivas as Samaya Shaiva, Purva Shaiva, Mishra Shaiva and Suddha Shaiva. Some Puranas refer to Shaiva sects such as Vama, Pashupata, Soma, Langala, Bhairava, Kapala and Nakula. They were considered as un-Vedic. Gunaratna refers to a number of sub sects like Bharata, Bhakta, Laingika, etc. Other famous Shaiva schools are the followers of Siddhantaagamas and the Lingayats or the Virashaivas in south India27.

The Parameshwara Agama mentions Shaiva sects like Virashaiva, Anandashaiva, Adishaiva, Anushaiva, Mahashaiva, Yogashaiva and Jnanashaiva. Apart from them seven other schools have been enumerated namely Ganapatya, Virabhadra, Bhairava, Sharabha, Nandikesha, Kumara and Paishaca which are again sub divided into several sub sects28. In Kashmir the important Shaiva schools were the Spanda, the Krama and Kula. Abhinava Gupta the founder of the Pratyabhijna School incorporated the teaching of Spanda, Krama and Kula into Pratyabhijna28.

Schools of Vaishnava Tantras

The two important Vaishnava schools are the Pancharatra and the Vaikhanasa. The former is considered as sathvika and superior to Vaikhanasa which is considered as tamasika30.  The Pancharatra School is more liberal in its outlook and practice and tantric practices have exerted a very deep influence on it. The Vaikhanasa School on accounts of its pure Vedic links perhaps arouse earlier than the Pancharatra school and naturally tantric mantras (and yantras) have no role to play in Vaikhanasa31.

Schools of Shakta Tantras

There are three principal schools of Shakta Tantrism namely the Samaya, the Mishra and the Kaula. The Samaya school is concerned with internal worship or meditation. It has nothing to do with external worship or rituals including muttering of mantras, homa and purashcarana. It lays stress on mental performance of the rites which is very difficult and can be known only from the preceptor. Among Samayin are two groups, samanya or general and vishista or special32. The Mishras perform all nitya karmas and worship Devi. The Kaula school is one of the most powerful Shakta schools which occupies a unique position among the left handed Shakta tradition with a history of 1300 years. It was popular in all parts of the country and directly and indirectly influenced the religio-philosophical thoughts of all Shaiva-Shakta schools. According to Kularnava Tantra– The Shaivas are superior to the Vedic, the left handed and right handed Shaktas are superior to the Shaivas, the Kaulas are superior to both left and right handed and there is none which surpasses the Kaulas33. The Kaulas are pure monists who postulate one Supreme Reality which they name as the Supreme Samvit34.

A number of sub schools exist among the Kaulas and the Kaularatnodyota list six schools namely- Ananda, Avali, Prabhu, Yaugika, Atika and Pada. The Kaulajnananirnaya a Tantrik test ascribed to Matsyendranath mention seven distinct schools of Kaula worshippers like Padottistha Kaula, Maha Kaula, Mula Kaula, Yogini Kaula, Vahni Kaula, Vrishnottha Kaula and Siddha Kaula. Jayaratha in his commentary on the Tantraloka mention four Kaula schools like Maha Kaula, Kaula, Akaula and Kula Kaula35. There is also mention of Kaula sub sects like Purva Kaulas, Uttara Kaulas and Kapalikas. The Digambaras are stated to be a sub sect of the Kapalikas while the Ksapanakas a sub sect of the Digambaras36. Another important Shakta school is the Parananda or Paramananda school which is similar to the Samayins in some respects though it is characterized by certain peculiarities. It taboos Nyasas and killing of living beings. Other Shakta schools are the Gaudas, the Kashmira and the Kerala schools37. Though different texts refer to a variety of Kaula schools established by different Kaula teachers in different periods of time each of which is characterized by a particular mode of spiritual discipline, they fail to mention their distinguishing traits. Hence it is not possible for us now to delineate their individual nature38.

Shakti Pitas

According to Devibhagavata and Kalika Purana, Lord Shiva became inconsolable at the death of his wife Sati and after destruction of Daksha’s sacrifice; he wandered over the earth in mad dance with Sati’s dead body on his shoulder. To free Shiva from his infatuation, Brahma, Vishnu and Shani entered the dead body and disposed of it gradually and bit by bit. In some accounts it is said that Sati’s body was severed into pieces by the discus of Lord Vishnu. The places where the pieces of Sati’s dead body fell are said to have become Pitas, that is seats or resorts of the mother goddess in all of which she is represented to be constantly living in some form together with a Bhairava, that is a form of her husband Shiva. We have heard of the enshrining of the teeth, nails and possessions of Lord Buddha in different parts of India and even outside it shores. Hence there may be some truth behind the legends associated with the origins of the Pitas39 .Some of the early Tantras refer to four Pitas namely Kamarupa in Assam, Purnagiri (place not identified), Oddiyana (situated in the valley of the Swat river) and Jalandhara (situated on the highway connecting Tibet with India)40 .But in an 16th century account the four Pitas mentioned are Sharada in modern Sardi in north Kashmir, Tulja Bhavani in Bijapur district of Karnataka, Kamakhya in Kamarupa and Jalandhari near Nagarkot in Punjab41.

There is no unanimity with regards to the number of Pitas. The Rudrayamala composed earlier than 1052 A.D. mentions ten holy places as the principal pitas42. The Kubjika Tantra speaks of 42 pitas43 while the Jnanarnava Tantra speaks of 50 pitas44 and the Matsya Purana speaks of 108 pitas45.


The Tantrik texts speak of ten Vidyas or cultic goddesses whose worship is commended for health, happiness, wealth and welfare here and liberation from phenomenal bondage hereafter. The ten divinities are classified into-

  1. The extraordinary vidyas (maha vidyas) where the divinities are Kali and Tara
  2. The ordinary vidyas (vidyas) with divinities like Shodashi or Tripurasundari, Bhuvaneshvari, Chinnamasta, Bhairavi and Dhumavati
  3. Adept vidyas (siddha vidyas) where divinities like Bagalamukhi, Matangi and Kamala are worshipped.

The practice of extraordinary vidyas is filled with great risks as the devotee is supposed to exercise great rigour, austerity, persistence and detachment while worshipping the divinities. So also is the case of adept vidyas which involve rituals of a kind that the common man would find extremely ardous and hazardous. The ordinary vidyas are suitable for ordinary aspirants and are considered safe. Each of these Vidyas has a characteristic form and particular dhyana, mantra, kavacha and other details of tantric ritual46.

The gods of Mahavidyas are in fact the manifestations of Shakti or the Great Mother in the process of creation, preservation and destruction of the universe47. The primal (adya) vidya is Kali who is the bestower of direct liberation while goddess Tara is the bestower of knowledge. The third goddess Shodashi is known for her benevolence. Goddess Bhuvaneshwari is conceived of as the protectress of the world while Bhairavi as the goddess who relieves her worshipper from all types of distress. Chinnamasta bestows on her worshippers anything they want and Dhumati is invoked for the purpose of destroying enemies. Goddess Vagala, Matangi and Kamala are goddess of tamas quality and invoked especially in connection with satkarma and allied purpose48.

Texts that dwell in detail on the Mahavidyas are the Tantrasara, Shakta Pramoda, Shaktisamgamatantra, etc49. The lists or depictions of the Mahavidya almost always include Kali, Tara, Chinnamasta, Bagalamukhi, Tripurasundari and Dhumavati, but the others are sometimes excluded. At times well known goddesses such as Durga, Annapurna and Kamakhya may be included in the list and even obscure goddesses such as Vashali, Bala and Pratyangiras are included50.

Both literary and iconographic materials give the general impression that the ten Mahavidyas are different forms of an overarching, transcendent female reality, who is usually referred to simply as the Mahadevi (great goddess)51. An underlying assumption of many Shakta texts is that the highest reality is the Great Goddess and this infinitely great being manifests herself in a wide variety of forms. Many myths in Shakta literature describe a goddess or the goddess as producing other goddesses from her own body. In such cases she often announces that she assumes different forms at different times to maintain cosmic stability, to bless a particular devotee or out of a sense of sport or playfulness. There is evidence that the ten avataras (incarnations) of Vishnu are the model for the ten Mahavidyas as expressions of the Mahadevi that is the Mahadevi represents at least to some extent a Shakta version of the Vaishnava idea52.

Regarding the origin of Mahavidya as a group the first version is that the Mahavidyas are different forms of Goddess Sati, the second version is that they are form of Parvathi, the third version is that they arise from goddess Kali, herself one of the Mahavidya and the fourth version is that they are forms of goddess Durga and the fifth version is that they are said to arise from goddess Shataksi who is identified with Shakambari and Durga53.

Sri Vidya Cult

The Sri Vidya cult is of considerable antiquity and in its origin was a folk cult with a beginning before the formation of the Vedic corpus. But in due course the folk elements and sophisticated Vedic ideas were fused together and the cult assumed its present form. This cult is prevalent all over India and there are regional variations in the practical details of the tradition54.

Vidya usually means knowledge, learning, discipline, system of thought. But in the tantric contest it has an extended meaning and it signifies a female divinity or her power. The mother goddess Durga is described as stationed in all being in the form of Vidya. Adepts of Sri Vidya cult recite a 15 lettered mantra known as panchadasakshari. By adding the secret syllable ‘shrim’ it becomes shodashi (16 lettered). Shodashi literally means ‘the damsel of sixteen years’ and her form is identified with deities like Lalitha, Rajarajeshvari, Sundari, Kameshvari and Bala. According to texts this vidya is called Shodashi as the manta of this vidya consists of 16 seed syllables. The verbal expression of this vidya is the mantra panchadashi or shodashi and the visual expression is the yantra, Sri Chakra. The chief instrument through which the mother goddess is propitiated and the knowledge concerning her as put into practice is Sri Chakra yantra55.

Sri Chakra

The Sri Chakra is the most celebrated and potent yantra mentioned in the Tantra sastra. It is famous as the eternal abode of Lalitha, the mother of grace. Sri Chakra is called the king of Chakras for it contains and sustains all other Chakras in the same way as the Divine Mother, the abiding deity in the Sri Chakra is the source and sustenance of all the gods and goddesses. The Tantra says that the worship of any deity can be conducted in Sri Chakra as this is the foundation, basis and continent of all the other Chakras56. The mere presence of Sri Chakra is believed to confer on the faithful material and spiritual benefits. There are several temples in south India like Kanchipuram, Chidambaram, Sringeri, Kollur, etc. where the worship of Sri Chakra assumes importance57.

Worship through Sri Chakra is more abstract than worship through pratima, image and leads one to the direct perception of the divine form and that is why so much importance is given to the Chakra in Tantric worship. When the Chakra is conceived as the material manifestation of the deity, all the emanations of the deity are also conceived as stationed in the Chakra. The main deity (pradhana) takes abode in the centre of the Chakra while its emanations gather round the pradhana as the parivara devathas. The worship is done to the parivaras and then to the pradhana58.

There are nine Chakras in the Sri Chakra, proceeding from the outermost to the innermost they are Trailokya Mohana, Sarvasaparipuraka, Sarvasankshobhana, Sarvasaubhagyadayaka, Sarvarthasadhaka, Sarvarakshakara, Sarvarogahara, Sarvasiddhiprada and Sarvanandamaya chakras. Each chakra has a colour of its own, a presiding deity, Chakreshvari and a particular class of Yoginis belonging to it. Each chakra has its own mudra devata59.

There are two ways to worship the Sri Chakra, external and internal. In external worship one worship the Sri Chakra by adoring it with leaves of bilva, lotuses or tulsi, flowers, waves lamps in front of it, etc., do the japa of Sri Vidya (panchadashi or shodashi mantra) and recites the thousand names of Lalitha (Lalithasahasranama). In inner worship all these activities are imagined. The followers of Samaya marga install (imagine) the Sri Chakra in the adhara chakra or basic centres in their subtle bodies and conduct the worship of the goddess there60.

Shankaracharya and Sri Vidya cult

It is said that Sri Shankaracharya was initiated in the tantric cult of Sri Vidya at Varanasi and the principal poetic work of this cult Saundaryalahari is ascribed to his authorship; so also tantric works like Prapanchasara and ChintamaniStava. But S.K.Ramachandra Rao says that the authorship of the above works are wrongly ascribed to Shankaracharya and he was entirely ignorant of Sri Chakra. It is probable that Vidyaranya who is regarded as a teacher in Shankaracharya’s line was proficient in the Sri Chakra cult. Associated with the founding of Vijayanagara Empire and with two pontificates, Sringeri and Kanchipuram he was a great spiritual, social and political force in south India. It may be due to his influence that the Sri Vidya cult spread in this part of the country61.

Sri Vidya cult belongs to Vaishnava Tantra

According to Lalan Prasad Singh, Sri is the consort of Vishnu and Sri Chakra is the abode of Vishnu, hence Sri Vidya cult belongs to the Vaishnava Tantra and not Shakta Tantra. Also according to him the Saundaryalahari is a devotional hymn in praise of Sri Chakra and is the canonical literature of Tantric Vaishnavism62.

The Cult of Yogini

The word Yogini has several meanings like a female devotee, sorceress or witch, fairy, attendants of Durga, a name of Durga and the female counterpart of a Yogi63. In some texts the term Yogini is used to denote minor goddesses who are described either as companions or attendants of the Goddess64. The names of the 64 Yoginis contained in the Puranic list suggests that in certain traditions the Yoginis were regarded as varying aspects of the great Goddess who through those Yoginis manifested the totality of her presence65. An important tradition derives the 64 Yoginis in groups of eight from the Ashta Matrakas or eight mothers. From very early times we know that Sapta Matrakas or seven mothers (namely Brahmi, Maheshvari, Kaumari, Vaishnavi, Varahi, Aindri and Narasimhi) as an independent group of goddesses later expanded to eight, nine or sixteen were popularly worshipped all over India66. The main goal in the worship of Yoginis was to obtain a wide variety of occult powers67. These powers were achieved through a series of rites and practices known collectively as Mahayaga68.

According to Kaulajnananirnaya, Matsyendranatha the first of the Natha gurus was responsible for introducing the Yogini cult among the Kaulas. Matsyendranatha must have belonged to a date prior to 900 A.D.69 and archaeological and textual evidence point to the emergence of the Yogini cult to around 9th century A.D70. The cult at one time extended its influence over large portion of India though the existing temples of the Yoginis are found mainly in Orissa and central India71. A Yogini temple is a simple circular enclosure with no roof or a sanctum sanctorum. Within the enclosure and placed in niches in its circular walls are a series of female images generally 64 in number with beautiful bodies but often with non-human heads. These shrines are referred as Chaunsat (sixty four) Yogini temples72.

Genesis of the Yoginis

The origins of the worship of Yoginis can be traced to the worship of village goddesses called grama devatas. In the villages of India each grama devata presides over the welfare of her village. These village goddesses seem to have been gradually transformed and consolidated into potent numerical grouping of 64 acquiring thereby a totally different character. It was tantrism that elevated these local deities and gave them a new form and vigour as a group of goddesses who could bestow magical powers on their worshippers. The philosophy and rituals of these deities were brought together under the heading Tantra and thus given legitimacy in later Hinduism73. Even today in the daily worship of Devi Kamakhya in the temple of Kamakhya in Assam, the names of the 64 Yoginis are recited74.

To be continued


  1. Prabuddha Bharata, vol-121, no.1, January 2016, pp:23,24,158
  2. N.Battacharyya- History of the Tantric Religion, Manohar, 2005, p.51
  3. C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 2007,p.18
  4. Ibid, p.19
  5. Paramahamsa Prajnananda- Jnana Sankalini Tantra, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2006, 12
  6. Teun Goudriaan & Sanjukta Gupta- Hindu Tantric and Sakta Literature, Publisher Otto Harrassowitz- Wiesbaden, 1981, p.118
  7. Paramahamsa Prajnananda- cit, p.12
  8. Manoranjan Basu- Fundamental of the Philosophy of Tantras, Mira Basu Publishers, Calcutta, 1986, p.58
  9. Ibid, p.59
  10. T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Theosophical Publishing Society, Benares and London, 1909, p.174
  11. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Edited- The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol-V, The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1978, p.109, see footnotes
  12. Ibid, p.110, see footnotes
  13. Deba Brata Sen Sharma- Studies in Tantra Yoga, Natraj Publishing House, Karnal, Haryana, 1985, pp:7,8
  14. Ibid, pp: 8,9,10
  15. N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.308
  16. T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Op.cit, pp:138,139
  17. Narayanaswami Iyer- Sri Vidya, part-II- Upasana, QJMS, 23 (2) 1932, pp:194,195
  18. Deba Brata Sen Sharma, Edited- Matsyendra Samhita, part- I, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1994, p.15
  19. Gaurinath Sastri, A Concise History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass Publisher Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p.50
  20. Chintaharan Chakravarti- Tantras, Studies on the Religion and Literature, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta, 1963, p.50
  21. Lalan Prasad Singh- Tantra- Its Mystic and Scientific Basis, Concept Publishing Company Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2010, p.131
  22. Kamalakar Mishra- Kashmir Shaivism– The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1999, pp:19,20
  23. Victor M. Fic- The Tantras- Its Origin, Theories, Art and Diffusion from India to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan and Indonesia, Abhinav Publications, 2003, pp: 43-51
  24. Ibid, pp:53,54
  25. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, cit, pp:233-243
  26. T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Op.cit, p.147
  27. Chintaharan Chakravarti- cit, pp:50-52
  28. Rama Ghose- Parameshwaragama, Shaiva Bharati Shodha Pratishthanam, Varanasi, 2004, p.xxii
  29. Kamalakar Mishra- cit, pp:46,47
  30. Chintaharan Chakravarti- cit, p.57
  31. Varadachari- Agamas and South Indian Vaisnavism, M.Rangacharya Memorial Trust, Triplicane, Madras, 1982, p.74
  32. Chintaharan Chakravarti- cit, pp:55,56
  33. Deba Brata Sen Sharma, Edited- Matsyendra Samhita, cit, pp:3,4
  34. Ibid, p.13
  35. Ibid, pp:10,11
  36. Chintaharan Chakravarti- cit, pp:54,55
  37. Ibid, pp:56,57
  38. Deba Brata Sen Sharma, Edited- Matsyendra Samhita, Op.cit,p.12
  39. C.Sircar, The Sakta Pithas, Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi, pp:6,7; Bose & Haldar- Tantras- Their Philosophy and Occult Secrets, Firma KLM Private Ltd, Calcutta, 1981, p.24
  40. C.Sircar- Op.cit, p.12; Bose & Haldar-Op.cit, pp:23,24
  41. C.Sircar- Op.cit, p.14
  42. Ibid, p.17
  43. Ibid, p.19
  44. Ibid, p.20
  45. Ibid, p.25
  46. K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, Sharada Prakashana, Bangalore, 1983, p.vii
  47. Bose & Haldar-cit, p.194
  48. N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, pp: 321-325
  49. David R Kinsley- Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahavidyas, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1998, pp:2,3
  50. Ibid, p.14
  51. Ibid, p.18
  52. Ibid, p.20
  53. Ibid, p.22
  54. K.Ramachandra Rao- Sri Chakra, Sri Satguru Publications, New Delhi, 1989,p.1
  55. K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, Sharada Prakashana, Bangalore, 1983,, vii, viii, ix
  56. Shankaranarayanan- Sri Chakra, Dipti Publications, Pondicherry,1979, pp:14,15,16
  57. K.Ramachandra Rao- Sri ChakraOp.cit, p.1
  58. Shankaranarayanan—Op.cit, pp:9,10,12
  59. Ibid, p.47
  60. Ibid, pp:93,96,99,100
  61. K.Ramachandra Rao- Sri Vidya Kosha, Sri Satguru Publications, New Delhi, 2000, pp:179,180
  62. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp: 136,137.97
  63. Vidya Dehijia- Yogini Cult and Temples- A Tantric Tradition, Published by National Museum, Janpath, New Delhi, 1986, p.11
  64. Ibid, p.23
  65. Ibid, p.22
  66. Ibid, pp:27,28
  67. Ibid, p.53
  68. Ibid, p.56
  69. Ibid, p.74
  70. Ibid, p.67
  71. Ibid, p.77
  72. Ibid, p.ix
  73. Ibid, pp:1,2
  74. Ibid, p.78



Tantra- A Brief Introduction, Part I

Tantra is a body of theories, techniques and rituals developed in India in antiquity which later spread to other parts of Asia. There are two fundamental aspects of tantra. The first aspect is its theory of creation which posits that the universe has no beginning and no end and that all its manifestations are merely the projections of divine energy of the creator. The second aspect of the tantra is the belief that the performance of tantric techniques and rituals facilitates access to this divine energy, enabling their practitioners to empower themselves as well as empower others associated with them in the guru-disciple relationship. Thus the knowledge and proper application of tantric techniques and rituals is believed to harness the creator’s cosmic energies to the promotion of the mundane as well as spiritual goals of their practitioners1.

Original Home of Tantra

Eastern India was the birth place of Tantric sadhana and from there it travelled to other parts of India and Nepal. According to Jayaratha (12th century A.D.) a commentator of Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta, Kaula Tantras are said to have issued from Kamarupa in Assam2. Some eminent scholars including Winternitz think that Bengal was the cradle of Tantra based on the following facts-

  • Worship of Kali, the most prominent tantric deity is most widespread in Bengal.
  • A large number of Shakti Pitas (holy resorts of Shakti) are in Bengal. Kamakhya (in Assam) was a strong hold of Tantra.
  • A largest number of Tantric manuscripts have been found in Bengal and
  • It is believed that Tantra was introduced in Tibet and China from Bengal through Buddhism and Tantric sadhana in Nepal appears to have been influenced by Tantric devotees of Bengal3.

Meaning of Tantra

Tantra is a Sanskrit word meaning rule and regulation, system or administrative code. For example the word Shasana Tantra means a system of government. Taking in this light, Tantra would come to mean a branch of knowledge which will offer a systematic and scientific method by which the spiritual powers inherent in man can be brought out and human life may be blessed with a glimpse of reality and attain salvation. Tantra also stands for Shastra meaning a code which is meant to govern the activity of man in all their aspects4. The expression Tantra is also a generic name applied to Aagama, Tantra and Samhita which are theological treatises discussing the codes of discipline and worship among different sects of religion along with their metaphysical and mystical points of view5. Derived from the root ‘tan’ meaning ‘to spread’, in religious sense Tantra mean ‘the scripture by which knowledge is spread’6.

Contents of Tantra 

The Tantras contain an amalgam of religion, philosophy, superstitious dogmas, rites, astronomy, astrology, medicine, prognostications, etc7. The Hindu tantra works present two sides, one philosophical and spiritual, the other popular, practical and more or less magical which relies on mantras, mudras, mandalas, nyasas, chakras and yantras as physical means to realize one’s identity with the supreme power or energy by concentration and as conferring extraordinary powers on devotees8. Regarding the contents of the Tantra, the Varahi Tantra gives a long list of 24 topics which include the following; the creation and dissolution of the world, classification of deities, description of tirthas (holy places), laws and duties for people in their different ashramas (stations of life), prescription of rules for vows, distinction between pious and sinful deeds, description of different psychic centers in the physical body, use of different Yantras (mystical diagrams), etc. A perusal of the long list of contents in any Tantra text shows their encyclopedic nature. But most of the Tantra being short in size do not cover all of these topic9.

Tantra and Aagama

The word Aagama or Aagamana means inductive experience. Aagama also means that which come, that is the knowledge which arises from within the self when spiritual impurity is removed. Aagama also means that which come by tradition. The two words Tantra and Aagama taken together mean a fully and logically worked out discipline or body (tantra) of knowledge that has come down by tradition and that is originally based on inductive experience (aagama) of the seers10 Aagama is that wisdom spoken by Lord Shiva to Parvathi. All available Aagamas contain a fourfold content-

  1. Vidya Pada- section dealing with metaphysics,
  2. Kriya Pada- section dealing with rituals,
  3. Yoga Pada- section laying down modes of spiritual disciplines and
  4. Charya Pada- section prescribing the daily routine of a spiritual seeker11.

The word Aagama and Tantra are often used as synonymous terms and there is also no distinction in respect of their essential teachings. The Aagama have been divided into Sat Aagamah or orthodox which accept the authority of the Vedas and Asat Aagamah or heterodox which do not accept the authority of the Vedas12. The Aagamic scriptures as a whole have branched out in three main currents, the Shaiva, the Shakta and the Vaishnava sastras or scriptures13. Usually the sastras of the Shaivas is referred as Aagama, that of Shaktas as Tantra and that of the Vaishnavas as Samhita14.

Thought the terms Tantra and Aagama are used synonymously the scope of Tantra is wider than that of Aagama as the former deals with as many as 25 subjects whereas the Aagamas covers only seven of the said 25 subjects15 According to Varahi Tantra the Aagamas contain seven topics that includes origin and dissolution of the world, modes of worship of deities and modes of spiritual disciplines, purificatory rites and practice of magical rites called satkarmas namely marana- vanquishing enemies, ucatana- ruining of adversary, vashikarana- subjugation of enemies, stambhana- paralyzing enemies or inimical forces, vidveshana- causing hostility in enemies and svastyayana- rites for obtaining peace and prosperity16.

Antiquity of the Tantras

It is difficult to determine the exact time when the word tantra came to be employed in the sense in which it is used in the so called tantra literature nor is it possible to decide what people first introduced its principles and practices or where they first arouse17. Dr. Bhattacharya says that the Buddhist were the first to introduce the tantras in their religion and that the Hindus borrowed them from the Buddhist in later times. But there is hardly any evidence of any Buddhist tantrik work before 650 A.D. except perhaps the Guhyasamajatantra and Manjushrimulakalpa, both of which contain late elements. There is evidence of the prevalence of tantra and shakta worship in India long before the 7th century A.D.18 Hence the question whether Buddhist tantra were prior to the Hindu tantras or vice versa is difficult to decide. It appears probable that both arose nearly about the same time19. The Amarakosha composed around 500 A.D. is silent on the Tantras and so also the Chinese pilgrims who visited India during 400-700 A.D. make no reference to Tantra literature. It seems safe to assume that the Tantras did not take a define shape before seventh century though many mantras and hymns which they include may be of very much earlier date. The existing works on Tantra and commentaries written on them belong to the period 7th century to 18th century A.D.20

At the same time orthodox scholars believe that the Tantras may have existed from the time of the Vedas or may be even older than the Vedas. Of course the language of the Tantric texts presently available is the post Vedic Sanskrit systematized by Panini, which might suggest that Tantras are post Vedic. But almost all the traditions in ancient India existed first in oral form and were handed down from guru to disciple or from generation to generation. Hence it is reasonable to believe that the Tantra philosophy existed in oral form from the time of the Vedas if not earlier and was only written down after the time of the Vedas21

Founder of Tantra

The founder of Tantra is Lord Shiva. He is known as Adi Guru, a great ascetic (Maha Yogi) and a great Tantrika (Maha Kaula). He attained occult power through Tantra sadhana22. Lord Shiva was skilled in chemistry and medicine and was known for his yogic powers. He resided in the vicinity of Himalaya Mountain and his religious outlook was non-Vedic. He was a champion of the poor, diseased and the tyrannized. He made no distinction between the high and low. He had numerous followers all over India who were designated as Asuras, Rakshasas and Danavas by the Devas (Manavas). These followers of Shiva constantly clashed with Devas and caused hindrance to the sacrifices of the Brahmanas. Sati the daughter of Daksha a king who ruled a part of Himalayan territory fell in love with Shiva and married him though opposed by her father. Once when Sati heard that her father was performing a sacrifice, though uninvited she wished to attend it. At the venue of the ceremony Sati was humiliated by her father who used offensive words against Shiva. Unable to bear the humiliation Sati swooned never to regain her senses. When Shiva heard this he was furious and in rage desecrated the sacrificial ground. All these incidents mentioned in the Puranas are interpreted as a revolt against the domination of Brahmins and their sacrificial modes of worship. After this incident there was reconciliation between the followers of Vedic religion and followers of Shiva and the latter was included one among the Trinity and yoga prescribed as a method for spiritual advancement. Gradually the popularity of Tantra increased among all class of people23.

Inauguration of New Method of Worship

The advent of Mahesha or Ishwara as a prominent figure or conception of divinity marks an epoch in ancient Hindu civilization. A new method of worship and a new methodology were inaugurated which developed into the Tantras and the tantric system. Music, art, literature, yoga; were all getting a new life and a new form. Henceforth every department seems to start with the name of Iswara and his consort. The goddess becomes markedly prominent in the shape of Durga and Kali. The old gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Aswins were subordinated and gradually became mythological beings shorn of their divine importance24.

In the old method of worship the fire god is the duta or messenger and offerings were thrown to the fire were carried to different gods. In the new method Avahan, Dhyana, Shodashapachara, Dharana, Nyasa and Kshamaprarthana were introduced. The mythology as disclosed in the Vedas is quite different from the new mythology of the Tantras and Puranas. The new mythology deals principally with Shiva, Durga, Kali, etc. and does not deal principally with the Vedic deities. Goddesses became very prominent in the shapes of Dasamahavidya; all being different manifestation of Shakti. In the old method of worship prayers or hymns to divinity consisted mostly in asking for worldly boons and pardon as also for moral advancement. The new method of worship consisted of contemplation of divinity and merging of the smaller individual self into the higher ego (Brahman)25.

 Characteristics of Tantra

  • Tantra Shastra is meant for all classes irrespective of caste, creed, sex and all could be given spiritual initiation.
  • Tantra Shastra is primarily a sadhana shastra and it affords to all freedom to be engaged in spiritual practice according to one’s competence and shows the practical method which would qualify the spiritual aspirant (sadhaka) to proceed along the higher path of knowledge; knowledge in terms of experience as distinguished from intellectual theorizing alone26.
  • The most significant character of the Tantra is to synthesize all the facts apparently opposed to each other. Tantra Shastra embraces all the view points of the Indian mind right from the black magic of the occultist to the highest peaks of karma, bhakti, upasana and jnana yoga of the rishis, munis, siddhas and saints27.

Philosophy of the Tantra

The philosophical foundation upon which Hindu Tantrism rest is the Sivadvaita school of Hinduism which maintains that the Supreme Reality is Shiva himself, being a Pure Consciousness, which is self-luminous, all pervading, eternal and absolute. Shiva is endowed with a Shakti (a female principle) which is a part of Him and eternally coexisting in Him. Their collective name is Param Shiva representing two aspects of the Absolute, one transcendent and static Shiva and the other immanent and dynamic, the Shakti28.

The essence of Tantra philosophy is the attainment of the supreme unification of Self with Parama Shiva. This state of self-realization is both an enjoyment and liberation. To a Tantric sadhaka world is nothing but the manifestation of Reality. With the gradual ascent to God-path, one experience Him both in animate and inanimate objects. This realization of divine presence puts an end to all physical, mental and spiritual sufferings and inspires one to live up to the ideal and glory of man. According to Tantra the world is neither an illusion nor reality. Tantra put emphasis on the spiritual realization with ignoring the material aspect of life29. According to S.K.Ramachandra Rao Tantra is primarily a practical discipline and its philosophy was never crystallized. The need was never strongly felt and much of the instruction was oral and situational. Some of the Tantric texts like Saradatilaka do deal with philosophical matter, but these accounts are neither systematic nor consistent. It is hard therefore to define and describe what may be called the Tantra philosophy30.

 Factors favouring the rise of Tantra

The origin and development of the Tantras as a special class of literature and Tantras as a special mode of sadhana were intimately connected with the rise of Shaivism and Pancaratra movement31. The Tantra form of sadhana probably came into special prominence when on the one hand, the elaborate details enjoined by the Vedic sacrifices taking a long time to be performed could not be accomplished by the people of feeble attainments and when on the other the Upanishadic method of acquisition of transcendent knowledge surpassed the intellects and equipment of the common people. The Puranas were at this time preaching the bhakti cult in order to place before the masses an easy method capable of being grasped and followed by all. Then the Tantras offered themselves to the people containing within them the essentials of the Vedic sacrifices and oblations, the essence of the monotheistic philosophy of the Upanishad, the bhakti cult preached by the Puranas, the Yoga method propounded by Patanjali and the mantra element of the Atharva Veda32

Tantra preached the principle of mukti (liberation) through bhukti (enjoyment) and did not advocate the repression of natural human propensities. It also did not advocate its adherents to give up eating meat and drinking wine and in the observance of Tantric rituals there was no caste restriction, all these factors gave rise to the popularity of Tantras33.

The development of Tantric Hinduism reached its zenith in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa under the Pala kings who ruled these parts of eastern India from 760-1142 A.D., in Kanyakubja under the Pratihara kings from 800-1019 A.D. and in Bundelkhand under the Chandella kings from 950- 1203 A.D.34

Was Tantra an alternate to Vedas?

What was the necessity of Tantra to emerge when there was Veda and many Vedic based scripture like Dharmasastra and the six philosophical treatises? This was because the elitist sastras failed to satisfy the aspirations of the common men particularly the shudras and women. In the post-Vedic scriptures, shudras and women were marginalized. They were denied the right to perform sacrifices and to participate in other religious observances. Moreover as life became busier and living more complicated, people felt the need for easier ways of devotion than the elaborate rituals. The orthodox Brahmanical scriptures demanded self-mortification and renunciation as stepping stones to liberation. This stifled the people’s natural inclination for enjoyment of sex, drinking wine and eating meat, etc. All these reasons led to the composition of Tantras, which provided easier methods of devotion without denying the satisfaction of natural human propensities35. As Tantra was a collective expression of numerous tribal and regional cults36 it could be termed as an alternative religion of the commoners as against the Vedas which was the religion of the elitist.

According to S.S.Suryanarayana Sastri from a very early stage in the history of Indian philosophical speculation there would seem to have been two currents of thoughts, the Vedic and the Agamic (Tantric), apparently independent and antagonistic. The Mahabharatha mentions Pancaratra (Agama texts of the Vaishnavas) as one among the various kinds of religion, the other being, Samkya, Yoga, Vedas and Pashupatas37.

The smrti texts based on the Vedas repudiated the Pancaratra doctrines as they initiated and admitted within their sect even women and Shudras38 Badarayana in his Brahma Sutras refutes the Pashupata and the Pancaratra Agamas39. Similarly the Agamic schools rejected the authority of the Vedas. The Anandabhairava Tantra declares-‘A wise man should not elect as his authority the words of Vedas which is full of impurity, produces but scanty and transitory fruits and is limited. He should instead sustain the authority of the Shaiva scriptures. Abhinavagupta in his Tantraloka remarks-‘That which according to the Veda is a source of sin leads according to this doctrine (Tantra) directly to liberation. In fact all the Vedic teaching is dominated by Maya40. In Mahanirvana Tantra Shiva declares- ‘The fool who follow other doctrines heedless of mine is as great a sinner as a parricide or the murderer of a Brahman or of a woman. The Vedic rites and mantras which were efficacious in the first age have ceased to have power in this age. They are now as powerless as snakes whose fangs have been drawn and are like dead things41. The Kularnava says ‘Mukti does not result from the study of the Veda nor by the study of shastras, it results from correct knowledge alone which is imparted by the teaching of the guru and which confers mukti42.

Differences between Tantras and Vedas

  • The Vedic ritual is propitiatory and sacrificial while the Tantra (Agamic) ritual consists essentially in devote worship of and personal communion with the deity.
  • The study of Vedas is restricted to certain castes while the doctrines of Tantra could be studied irrespective of sex or caste.
  • The Vedic worship is mainly sacrificial while the Tantric method of worship involves idols, symbols and meditation43
  • The Brahman of Vedic thought is static while the Brahman (Siva) of the Tantra is dynamic44
  • Tantra is a cult and the Veda a religio-philosophical school
  • Tantra is for salvation of the soul and the Veda for the enrichment of mind45
  • Vedic knowledge comes mainly through the process of revelation whereas the Tantric knowledge comes mainly through experiences46.

Reconciliation between Tantra and Vedas

At first the Vedic tradition and the Tantric tradition were almost irreconcilable. Each camp looked upon the other as antagonistic, perverse and purposeless. If the Puranas proclaimed that the Tantras were prepared only in order to confound the wicked the Tantras like Kularnava claimed that a Tantra is like an honourable house wife while the Veda with its accessories like Puranas and shastras is like a common harlot. The orthodox view projected mainly by Kumarila (early 6th century) holds that Tantra was meant for the degenerate, the uneducated, the fallen or the infirm and that its rituals were fraught with dangers of all sorts. But the Tantrik enthusiasts held and hold even now that the Vedas being antiquated cannot lead to much good. There was obviously a struggle for ascendance and each tradition geared itself up to meet the needs of both the folk and the elite. And in the process inevitably each modeled itself after the other, assimilated the attractive particulars of the other and attempted to secure the authority and support of the other. The Tantrik adherents sought to show that Tantra had Vedic foundation, Vedic sanction and Vedic authority. The Vedic puritans took over many of the hand gestures (mudras), spells (mantras) and magic designs (mandalas) the Tantriks employed together with their method of exposition47.

The reconciliation between the two divergent traditions was partly effected by the orthodox authorities affiliating the Tantra to the Saubhagya kanda of Atharvaveda and the Tantrik writers relying heavily on Vedic texts like Taittiriya Aranyaka and describing their scriptures as continuation of the Upanishadic traditions. The Vedic rituals adopted numerous Tantrik details and the Tantra abandoned its cruder ideology in favour of the austere aspiration of the Upanishads48.

 Attempts to Sanskritise Tantra

Although later authors of Tantric texts and commentators on these texts sought to base their doctrines and commentaries on the Vedas, Tantra remained a separate branch of knowledge quite outside the pale of Vedic tradition. This was due to the fact that in the ideological conflict between the two tradition, the Veda and Tantra, the latter held its own although many of its theoreticians mostly Brahmins covertly or openly supported the Vedic tradition and fabricated the Tantra in the Vedic lines. In spite of all sorts of Brahmanical interpolations, grafting and handling, Tantra clearly rejects the varna system and patriarchy and in the field of religion, all external formalities in regard to spiritual quests49.

Seeds of Tantra in Atharva Veda

At Mohenjodaro a seal have been discovered with a figure in yogic posture and surrounded by animals and is identified with Shiva. Also a number of conical stone, shell and clay pieces have been found which is identified as a Linga. Similarly a number of terracotta figurines of a female figure have been found which is identified with mother goddess50. All these show that Shiva and mother goddess were worshipped during the time when the urban civilization at Harappa and Mohenjodaro were flourishing. This implies that Tantra flourished during that period as Shaivism and Shaktism are the two aspects of Tantra. Shaktism represents the beginning of Tantra sadhana and Shaivism is the culminating point of the spiritual march51. The urban civilization which flourished at Harappa is identified with the Atharavan phase of the Vedic civilization and this has led scholars to believe that the Atharva Veda as the basis of all the tantras, especially those connected with the worship of the mother goddess. The Sammohana Tantra asserts that without the worship of Kali or Tara there can be no practical application of Atharvan charms and spells52.

The Atharva Veda is an inestimable source of knowledge of the actual popular religion of ancient India and for its populist character had been for centuries tabooed in the upper echelons of the society dominated by the sacerdotal class53. This Veda is quite different from the Rig Veda in content and form and hence was not recognized as a revealed scripture (Sruti). The word trayi which is used to signify the Vedic scriptures does not recognize the Atharva Veda as the fourth Veda. Panani the grammarian of India describes the Veda as trayi and Dayananda Saraswati the founder of Arya Samaj condemn the Atharva Veda as a heretical literature54. As the name of the seers who composed the Atharva Veda did not figure in the traditional lists of the Vedic seers (anukramanis), for long the Atharva Veda was denied the status enjoyed by the trayi55. It was only after the insertion of about 1/7th part of the Rig Veda and associating mythical sages as authors with it did the Atharva Veda get elevated as the fourth Veda56. The Atharva Veda mainly deals with the Tantric cult and covers all the branches of Tantrism. Atharva Veda is a compendium of Vidya Tantra which propagates the philosophy of Brahma Vada and Upavidya Tantra which deals about charms and sorceries57.

Tantras and Puranic Dharma

Among the followers of Vaishnavas and Shaivas were a section of Brahmins who while believing in the worship of Vishnu and Shiva as a means to attain salvation also looked upon the Vedas as authorities, attached great importance to varnashrama dharma and the smrti rules and did not like to give them up. The Puranic Dharma originated from these classes of people who were also the authors of the various Puranas58. As the Trantrics preached ideas and practices which often went against the Brahmanical ones, the early Puranas denounced the Tantras as Mohana Sastra59 and the Tantra scriptures as inferior and tamasi. They agreed that Shiva had revealed the Tantras but his reason for doing so was to delude the apostate and distract him from the true path. In Varaha Purana Rudra himself denounces the Pashupatas and the other followers of the Shaivagamas as given to mean and sinful acts and as addicted to meat, wine and women60.  In chapter 15 of Kurma Purana it is said that the great sinners the Pancaratrins were produced as a result of killing cows in some other birth, that they are absolutely non-Vedic and that the literature of the Shaktas, Shaivas and the Pancaratras are for the delusion of mankind61.

But from about the end of eighth century or the beginning of ninth century A.D. the Puranas began to recognize the Tantras as one of the authorities on religious matters. Tantric mantras and performance of Nyasas and Mudras were introduced in diksha (initiation ceremony), consecration of images, performance of sandhyavandana, and the Yantra as a medium of worship was also recognized. This recognition must have been effected by the great spread of Tantricism among the people including even the Buddhist62 The Devi, Devibhagavata and the Kalika and large portions of Narada Purana are extensively Tantric63

Both Tantras and Puranas are didactic and sectarian. As a rule Tantras contains less historical and legendary matter and more directions as to ritual. While the Puranas approve of Vedic rites as well as other, for which they give directions, the Tantras insist that ceremonies other than theirs prescribed are useless64

 Reasons for Tantra to acquire a negative image

  • Tantras do not believe in caste and creed. Tantric social system runs counter to the rigid Vedic system of caste and creed. There is no place for a Brahmin priest in tantric sadhana. That is why Brahmins started a tirade against tantras and declared the followers of tantras as outcaste65.
  • Another main cause for the apathy towards Tantra was the baseless Aryan bias. Earlier scholars equated Tantra with the so called degraded forms of Hinduism supposed to be the legacies of uncivilized aboriginal cultures. To these learned western scholars just as the Englishmen came to India with a civilizing mission, so also in the past aboriginal Indians were civilized by the Aryans who came from outside. To them whatever is noble and praiseworthy in Hinduism is found in the so called Aryan tradition that is the Vedic texts and Brahmanical literature and all the barbarous and degraded aspects attributed to Tantras are derived from the uncivilized non-Aryans. This idea was also shared by the learned Indians who belonged mostly if not exclusively to the upper strata of society who took pride in thinking of themselves as direct descendants of the great Aryan race66.
  • The practice of Panchamakaras involving wine and women which was considered as obnoxious and revolting and the inclusions of the six magical rites called Satkarmas in the Agamas led people develop a negative attitude towards Tantras.
  • In course of time for some people, Tantric practices became exclusively self-indulgent. Excessive drinking and promiscuous sexual unions marked their so called rituals. As Tantra attaches importance to guru and gurus being hereditary, sometimes a worthless and avaricious son of a guru led to denegation of Tantra. This led western and Indian scholars to believe that obscenity was the soul of this cult and even patriots like Bankim Chandra Chaterjee viewed Tantra as a misguiding principle which offered only wine and women in the name of religion67.

Contributions of Tantra

  • Tantra is the oldest and the most scientific religion of the world. It is the first spiritual faith laying down ethical norms to be strictly observed for the spiritual enlightenment and integrated development of society68.
  • Tantras endeavored to provide a common platform for differing and wrangling sects of Vaishnavas, Shaivas and others by putting forward Devi as the object of worship for all69.
  • The Tantra placed women on a footing of equality with men and accorded them an exalted position. She could play the role of a guru and in certain tantric rites was worshiped as Shakti70.
  • The orthodox Brahmanical scriptures by compartmentalization of society into four castes and by rigorous divisions of the people into higher and lower classes fostered animosity among them. There was an upsurge for leveling down this invidious discrimination. Tantra came forward to reduce the rigours of the caste system and put more premium on merit than the accident of birth71.
  • The murder of a woman is regarded as a heinous crime by Tantrists and they denounced prostitution and burning of widows and allowed remarriage of girl widows72.
  • The popularity of Tantra compelled the orthodox Brahmanical sastra to incorporate Tantra practices. For instance the Tantric concepts of mandala, mudra, yantra, the mystic bija mantras like hrim, krim, kumara puja, etc. crept into the traditional works of the Brahmanas. Similarly Buddhism was also deeply influenced by Tantras73.
  • Tantra developed a system of medical treatment for diseases affecting men, women and children. As the human body was considered essential for Tantric sadhanas, various drugs both herbal and chemical were prescribed for the preservation of youth and virility and for the treatment of diseases; so also medicines for rejuvenation and destroying the effects of various kinds of poisons74.
  • Art and architecture was also influenced by Tantra. There are many images of various Tantric deities particularly of Kali in her different forms. Many temples sculptures particularly of Orissa and south India show an abundance of tantric motifs. Several temples in south India worship Sri Chakra, the yantra associated with the Sri Vidya cult. There are also painting of Kali and other tantric deities as also of mandalas, mudras, yantras and Kundalini75.
  • The rational and liberal outlook of Tantras made it popular in foreign countries like Tibet, Nepal and Cambodia. Thus Tantras played an important role in the spread of Indian religious concepts abroad76.
  • The living Hindu religion of today is essentially Tantric. Even a few genuine Vedic rites that are preserved and are supposed to be derived straight from the Vedas, i.e. the Sandhya have been modified by the addition of tantric practices.77 The rituals of the temples based on Agamas have replaced the Vedic yajnas.78

To be continued


  1. Victor M. Fic- The Tantras- Its Origin, Theories, Art and Diffusion from India to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan and Indonesia, Abhinav Publications, 2003, pp: 23,24
  2. Lalan Prasad Singh- Tantra- Its Mystic and Scientific Basis, Concept Publishing Company Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2010, p.6
  3. Sures Chandra Banerji- The Cultural Glory of Ancient India, D.K.Printworld (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2000, pp: 112,113
  4. N.Bose & Hiralal Haldar- Tantras – Their Philosophy and Occult Secrets, Firma KLM Private Ltd, Calcutta, 1981,p.20
  5. Gaurinath Sastri, A Concise History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass Publisher Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p.47
  6. N.N.Battacharyya- History of the Tantric Religion, Manohar, 2005, p.20
  7. P.V.Kane –History of Dharmashastra, Vol V, part –II, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1962, p.1049
  8. Ibid, p.1057
  9. Prabuddha Bharata, vol-115, no.6, June 2010, p.373
  10. Kamalakar Mishra- Kashmir Shaivism– The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1999, p.36
  11. Prabuddha Bharatacit, pp:372,373
  12. Nando Lall Kundu- Constructive Philosophy of India, Vol-II (Tantra), Published by Nando Lall Kundu, Calcutta, p.24
  13. Ibid, p.31
  14. Gaurinath Sastri- cit, p.47
  15. Manoranjan Basu- Tantras- A General Study, Published by Shrimati Mira Basu, Calcutta, 1976, p.1
  16. Prabuddha Bharatacit, pp:372,373
  17. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1033
  18. Ibid, pp:1039,1040
  19. Ibid, p.1038
  20. Earnest A Payne- The Shaktas: An Introduction and Comparative Study, Cosmos Publication, New Delhi, 2004, pp:52,53
  21. Kamalakar Mishra- cit, p.14
  22. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.8
  23. N.Bose & Hiralal Haldar- Op.cit, pp:26-29
  24. Babu Dhanapati Banerji- The Evolution of Rudra or Mahesha in Hinduism, QJMS, Vol-X, April 1920, No.3, pp:221,222
  25. Ibid
  26. Manoranjan Basu- cit, p.25
  27. Ramakant Sharma Angiras- Trilogy of Tantra, Natraj Publishing House, Karnal, Haryana, 1989,p.3
  28. Victor M. Fic- cit, p.27
  29. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.43
  30. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, Sri Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 2008, p.57
  31. Studies on the Tantras– Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1989, p.10
  32. Subodh Kapoor- Short Introduction to Shakta Philosophy, Cosmo Publication, New Delhi, 2008, p.68
  33. Sures Chandra Banerji- The Cultural Glory of Ancient India, D.K.Printworld (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2000, p.121 and P.V.Kane-cit, p.1077
  34. Victor M. Fic- cit, p.42
  35. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, p13
  36. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.19
  37. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- The Sivadvaita of Srikantha, University of Madras, 1930, p.1
  38. Surendranath Dasgupta- History of Indian Philosophy, vol- III, Cambridge University Press, 1952, pp: 19,20
  39. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- Op.cit, p.1
  40. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- The Canon of the Shaivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition, Motilal Banarasidass, New Delhi, 1989, p.9
  41. Earnest A Payne- cit, pp:50,51
  42. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1083
  43. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- Op.cit, pp:5,7,8
  44. Vishwa Nath Drabu- A Study in the Socio Economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200 B.C. – A.D.700), Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1990, p.233
  45. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.12
  46. Kamalakar Mishra- cit, p.5
  47. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.12
  48. Ibid, p.13
  49. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, pp:21-23
  50. B.N.Luniya- Life and Culture in Ancient India, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, Agra, pp:51,52
  51. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp:2,3
  52. Srikantha Sastri- Tantri Hieroglyphics, QJMS, vol-51, No.1, April 1960, p.11
  53. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, p.13
  54. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.22
  55. S.K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, Sharada Prakashana, Bangalore, 1983, p.3
  56. Sanjay Sonawani- Origins of the Vedic Religion And Indus ghaggar Civilization, Book Tango, 2015
  57. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.23
  58. R.C.Hazra- Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Abinas Press, Calcutta, 1940, pp:193,203,204
  59. Ibid, p.260
  60. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- cit, p.10
  61. Surendranath Dasgupta- cit, p.19
  62. R.C.Hazra- Op.cit, pp:260-262
  63. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- cit, p.8
  64. Earnest A Payne- cit, p.50
  65. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp: 139,140
  66. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.43
  67. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.41 and Sures Chandra Banerji- Op.cit, p.123
  68. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp: 11,12
  69. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1092
  70. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1092 and Sures Chandra Banerji- Op.cit, p.120
  71. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 2007,p.13
  72. Earnest A Payne- cit, p.59
  73. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, p.122
  74. Ibid, pp:121,122
  75. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, pp:122,123 and S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Sri Chakra, Sri Satguru Publications, New Delhi, 1989,p.1
  76. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, p.121
  77. P.T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Theosophical Publishing Society, Benaras and London, 1909, p.130
  78. Ibid, pp:124,128