Author Archives: S.Srinivas

Historian and Writer

Tantra- A Brief Introduction, Part I

Tantra is a body of theories, techniques and rituals developed in India in antiquity which later spread to other parts of Asia. There are two fundamental aspects of tantra. The first aspect is its theory of creation which posits that the universe has no beginning and no end and that all its manifestations are merely the projections of divine energy of the creator. The second aspect of the tantra is the belief that the performance of tantric techniques and rituals facilitates access to this divine energy, enabling their practitioners to empower themselves as well as empower others associated with them in the guru-disciple relationship. Thus the knowledge and proper application of tantric techniques and rituals is believed to harness the creator’s cosmic energies to the promotion of the mundane as well as spiritual goals of their practitioners1.

Original Home of Tantra

Eastern India was the birth place of Tantric sadhana and from there it travelled to other parts of India and Nepal. According to Jayaratha (12th century A.D.) a commentator of Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta, Kaula Tantras are said to have issued from Kamarupa in Assam2. Some eminent scholars including Winternitz think that Bengal was the cradle of Tantra based on the following facts-

  • Worship of Kali, the most prominent tantric deity is most widespread in Bengal.
  • A large number of Shakti Pitas (holy resorts of Shakti) are in Bengal. Kamakhya (in Assam) was a strong hold of Tantra.
  • A largest number of Tantric manuscripts have been found in Bengal and
  • It is believed that Tantra was introduced in Tibet and China from Bengal through Buddhism and Tantric sadhana in Nepal appears to have been influenced by Tantric devotees of Bengal3.

Meaning of Tantra

Tantra is a Sanskrit word meaning rule and regulation, system or administrative code. For example the word Shasana Tantra means a system of government. Taking in this light, Tantra would come to mean a branch of knowledge which will offer a systematic and scientific method by which the spiritual powers inherent in man can be brought out and human life may be blessed with a glimpse of reality and attain salvation. Tantra also stands for Shastra meaning a code which is meant to govern the activity of man in all their aspects4. The expression Tantra is also a generic name applied to Aagama, Tantra and Samhita which are theological treatises discussing the codes of discipline and worship among different sects of religion along with their metaphysical and mystical points of view5. Derived from the root ‘tan’ meaning ‘to spread’, in religious sense Tantra mean ‘the scripture by which knowledge is spread’6.

Contents of Tantra 

The Tantras contain an amalgam of religion, philosophy, superstitious dogmas, rites, astronomy, astrology, medicine, prognostications, etc7. The Hindu tantra works present two sides, one philosophical and spiritual, the other popular, practical and more or less magical which relies on mantras, mudras, mandalas, nyasas, chakras and yantras as physical means to realize one’s identity with the supreme power or energy by concentration and as conferring extraordinary powers on devotees8. Regarding the contents of the Tantra, the Varahi Tantra gives a long list of 24 topics which include the following; the creation and dissolution of the world, classification of deities, description of tirthas (holy places), laws and duties for people in their different ashramas (stations of life), prescription of rules for vows, distinction between pious and sinful deeds, description of different psychic centers in the physical body, use of different Yantras (mystical diagrams), etc. A perusal of the long list of contents in any Tantra text shows their encyclopedic nature. But most of the Tantra being short in size do not cover all of these topic9.

Tantra and Aagama

The word Aagama or Aagamana means inductive experience. Aagama also means that which come, that is the knowledge which arises from within the self when spiritual impurity is removed. Aagama also means that which come by tradition. The two words Tantra and Aagama taken together mean a fully and logically worked out discipline or body (tantra) of knowledge that has come down by tradition and that is originally based on inductive experience (aagama) of the seers10 Aagama is that wisdom spoken by Lord Shiva to Parvathi. All available Aagamas contain a fourfold content-

  1. Vidya Pada- section dealing with metaphysics,
  2. Kriya Pada- section dealing with rituals,
  3. Yoga Pada- section laying down modes of spiritual disciplines and
  4. Charya Pada- section prescribing the daily routine of a spiritual seeker11.

The word Aagama and Tantra are often used as synonymous terms and there is also no distinction in respect of their essential teachings. The Aagama have been divided into Sat Aagamah or orthodox which accept the authority of the Vedas and Asat Aagamah or heterodox which do not accept the authority of the Vedas12. The Aagamic scriptures as a whole have branched out in three main currents, the Shaiva, the Shakta and the Vaishnava sastras or scriptures13. Usually the sastras of the Shaivas is referred as Aagama, that of Shaktas as Tantra and that of the Vaishnavas as Samhita14.

Thought the terms Tantra and Aagama are used synonymously the scope of Tantra is wider than that of Aagama as the former deals with as many as 25 subjects whereas the Aagamas covers only seven of the said 25 subjects15 According to Varahi Tantra the Aagamas contain seven topics that includes origin and dissolution of the world, modes of worship of deities and modes of spiritual disciplines, purificatory rites and practice of magical rites called satkarmas namely marana- vanquishing enemies, ucatana- ruining of adversary, vashikarana- subjugation of enemies, stambhana- paralyzing enemies or inimical forces, vidveshana- causing hostility in enemies and svastyayana- rites for obtaining peace and prosperity16.

Antiquity of the Tantras

It is difficult to determine the exact time when the word tantra came to be employed in the sense in which it is used in the so called tantra literature nor is it possible to decide what people first introduced its principles and practices or where they first arouse17. Dr. Bhattacharya says that the Buddhist were the first to introduce the tantras in their religion and that the Hindus borrowed them from the Buddhist in later times. But there is hardly any evidence of any Buddhist tantrik work before 650 A.D. except perhaps the Guhyasamajatantra and Manjushrimulakalpa, both of which contain late elements. There is evidence of the prevalence of tantra and shakta worship in India long before the 7th century A.D.18 Hence the question whether Buddhist tantra were prior to the Hindu tantras or vice versa is difficult to decide. It appears probable that both arose nearly about the same time19. The Amarakosha composed around 500 A.D. is silent on the Tantras and so also the Chinese pilgrims who visited India during 400-700 A.D. make no reference to Tantra literature. It seems safe to assume that the Tantras did not take a define shape before seventh century though many mantras and hymns which they include may be of very much earlier date. The existing works on Tantra and commentaries written on them belong to the period 7th century to 18th century A.D.20

At the same time orthodox scholars believe that the Tantras may have existed from the time of the Vedas or may be even older than the Vedas. Of course the language of the Tantric texts presently available is the post Vedic Sanskrit systematized by Panini, which might suggest that Tantras are post Vedic. But almost all the traditions in ancient India existed first in oral form and were handed down from guru to disciple or from generation to generation. Hence it is reasonable to believe that the Tantra philosophy existed in oral form from the time of the Vedas if not earlier and was only written down after the time of the Vedas21

Founder of Tantra

The founder of Tantra is Lord Shiva. He is known as Adi Guru, a great ascetic (Maha Yogi) and a great Tantrika (Maha Kaula). He attained occult power through Tantra sadhana22. Lord Shiva was skilled in chemistry and medicine and was known for his yogic powers. He resided in the vicinity of Himalaya Mountain and his religious outlook was non-Vedic. He was a champion of the poor, diseased and the tyrannized. He made no distinction between the high and low. He had numerous followers all over India who were designated as Asuras, Rakshasas and Danavas by the Devas (Manavas). These followers of Shiva constantly clashed with Devas and caused hindrance to the sacrifices of the Brahmanas. Sati the daughter of Daksha a king who ruled a part of Himalayan territory fell in love with Shiva and married him though opposed by her father. Once when Sati heard that her father was performing a sacrifice, though uninvited she wished to attend it. At the venue of the ceremony Sati was humiliated by her father who used offensive words against Shiva. Unable to bear the humiliation Sati swooned never to regain her senses. When Shiva heard this he was furious and in rage desecrated the sacrificial ground. All these incidents mentioned in the Puranas are interpreted as a revolt against the domination of Brahmins and their sacrificial modes of worship. After this incident there was reconciliation between the followers of Vedic religion and followers of Shiva and the latter was included one among the Trinity and yoga prescribed as a method for spiritual advancement. Gradually the popularity of Tantra increased among all class of people23.

Inauguration of New Method of Worship

The advent of Mahesha or Ishwara as a prominent figure or conception of divinity marks an epoch in ancient Hindu civilization. A new method of worship and a new methodology were inaugurated which developed into the Tantras and the tantric system. Music, art, literature, yoga; were all getting a new life and a new form. Henceforth every department seems to start with the name of Iswara and his consort. The goddess becomes markedly prominent in the shape of Durga and Kali. The old gods Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Aswins were subordinated and gradually became mythological beings shorn of their divine importance24.

In the old method of worship the fire god is the duta or messenger and offerings were thrown to the fire were carried to different gods. In the new method Avahan, Dhyana, Shodashapachara, Dharana, Nyasa and Kshamaprarthana were introduced. The mythology as disclosed in the Vedas is quite different from the new mythology of the Tantras and Puranas. The new mythology deals principally with Shiva, Durga, Kali, etc. and does not deal principally with the Vedic deities. Goddesses became very prominent in the shapes of Dasamahavidya; all being different manifestation of Shakti. In the old method of worship prayers or hymns to divinity consisted mostly in asking for worldly boons and pardon as also for moral advancement. The new method of worship consisted of contemplation of divinity and merging of the smaller individual self into the higher ego (Brahman)25.

 Characteristics of Tantra

  • Tantra Shastra is meant for all classes irrespective of caste, creed, sex and all could be given spiritual initiation.
  • Tantra Shastra is primarily a sadhana shastra and it affords to all freedom to be engaged in spiritual practice according to one’s competence and shows the practical method which would qualify the spiritual aspirant (sadhaka) to proceed along the higher path of knowledge; knowledge in terms of experience as distinguished from intellectual theorizing alone26.
  • The most significant character of the Tantra is to synthesize all the facts apparently opposed to each other. Tantra Shastra embraces all the view points of the Indian mind right from the black magic of the occultist to the highest peaks of karma, bhakti, upasana and jnana yoga of the rishis, munis, siddhas and saints27.

Philosophy of the Tantra

The philosophical foundation upon which Hindu Tantrism rest is the Sivadvaita school of Hinduism which maintains that the Supreme Reality is Shiva himself, being a Pure Consciousness, which is self-luminous, all pervading, eternal and absolute. Shiva is endowed with a Shakti (a female principle) which is a part of Him and eternally coexisting in Him. Their collective name is Param Shiva representing two aspects of the Absolute, one transcendent and static Shiva and the other immanent and dynamic, the Shakti28.

The essence of Tantra philosophy is the attainment of the supreme unification of Self with Parama Shiva. This state of self-realization is both an enjoyment and liberation. To a Tantric sadhaka world is nothing but the manifestation of Reality. With the gradual ascent to God-path, one experience Him both in animate and inanimate objects. This realization of divine presence puts an end to all physical, mental and spiritual sufferings and inspires one to live up to the ideal and glory of man. According to Tantra the world is neither an illusion nor reality. Tantra put emphasis on the spiritual realization with ignoring the material aspect of life29. According to S.K.Ramachandra Rao Tantra is primarily a practical discipline and its philosophy was never crystallized. The need was never strongly felt and much of the instruction was oral and situational. Some of the Tantric texts like Saradatilaka do deal with philosophical matter, but these accounts are neither systematic nor consistent. It is hard therefore to define and describe what may be called the Tantra philosophy30.

 Factors favouring the rise of Tantra

The origin and development of the Tantras as a special class of literature and Tantras as a special mode of sadhana were intimately connected with the rise of Shaivism and Pancaratra movement31. The Tantra form of sadhana probably came into special prominence when on the one hand, the elaborate details enjoined by the Vedic sacrifices taking a long time to be performed could not be accomplished by the people of feeble attainments and when on the other the Upanishadic method of acquisition of transcendent knowledge surpassed the intellects and equipment of the common people. The Puranas were at this time preaching the bhakti cult in order to place before the masses an easy method capable of being grasped and followed by all. Then the Tantras offered themselves to the people containing within them the essentials of the Vedic sacrifices and oblations, the essence of the monotheistic philosophy of the Upanishad, the bhakti cult preached by the Puranas, the Yoga method propounded by Patanjali and the mantra element of the Atharva Veda32

Tantra preached the principle of mukti (liberation) through bhukti (enjoyment) and did not advocate the repression of natural human propensities. It also did not advocate its adherents to give up eating meat and drinking wine and in the observance of Tantric rituals there was no caste restriction, all these factors gave rise to the popularity of Tantras33.

The development of Tantric Hinduism reached its zenith in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa under the Pala kings who ruled these parts of eastern India from 760-1142 A.D., in Kanyakubja under the Pratihara kings from 800-1019 A.D. and in Bundelkhand under the Chandella kings from 950- 1203 A.D.34

Was Tantra an alternate to Vedas?

What was the necessity of Tantra to emerge when there was Veda and many Vedic based scripture like Dharmasastra and the six philosophical treatises? This was because the elitist sastras failed to satisfy the aspirations of the common men particularly the shudras and women. In the post-Vedic scriptures, shudras and women were marginalized. They were denied the right to perform sacrifices and to participate in other religious observances. Moreover as life became busier and living more complicated, people felt the need for easier ways of devotion than the elaborate rituals. The orthodox Brahmanical scriptures demanded self-mortification and renunciation as stepping stones to liberation. This stifled the people’s natural inclination for enjoyment of sex, drinking wine and eating meat, etc. All these reasons led to the composition of Tantras, which provided easier methods of devotion without denying the satisfaction of natural human propensities35. As Tantra was a collective expression of numerous tribal and regional cults36 it could be termed as an alternative religion of the commoners as against the Vedas which was the religion of the elitist.

According to S.S.Suryanarayana Sastri from a very early stage in the history of Indian philosophical speculation there would seem to have been two currents of thoughts, the Vedic and the Agamic (Tantric), apparently independent and antagonistic. The Mahabharatha mentions Pancaratra (Agama texts of the Vaishnavas) as one among the various kinds of religion, the other being, Samkya, Yoga, Vedas and Pashupatas37.

The smrti texts based on the Vedas repudiated the Pancaratra doctrines as they initiated and admitted within their sect even women and Shudras38 Badarayana in his Brahma Sutras refutes the Pashupata and the Pancaratra Agamas39. Similarly the Agamic schools rejected the authority of the Vedas. The Anandabhairava Tantra declares-‘A wise man should not elect as his authority the words of Vedas which is full of impurity, produces but scanty and transitory fruits and is limited. He should instead sustain the authority of the Shaiva scriptures. Abhinavagupta in his Tantraloka remarks-‘That which according to the Veda is a source of sin leads according to this doctrine (Tantra) directly to liberation. In fact all the Vedic teaching is dominated by Maya40. In Mahanirvana Tantra Shiva declares- ‘The fool who follow other doctrines heedless of mine is as great a sinner as a parricide or the murderer of a Brahman or of a woman. The Vedic rites and mantras which were efficacious in the first age have ceased to have power in this age. They are now as powerless as snakes whose fangs have been drawn and are like dead things41. The Kularnava says ‘Mukti does not result from the study of the Veda nor by the study of shastras, it results from correct knowledge alone which is imparted by the teaching of the guru and which confers mukti42.

Differences between Tantras and Vedas

  • The Vedic ritual is propitiatory and sacrificial while the Tantra (Agamic) ritual consists essentially in devote worship of and personal communion with the deity.
  • The study of Vedas is restricted to certain castes while the doctrines of Tantra could be studied irrespective of sex or caste.
  • The Vedic worship is mainly sacrificial while the Tantric method of worship involves idols, symbols and meditation43
  • The Brahman of Vedic thought is static while the Brahman (Siva) of the Tantra is dynamic44
  • Tantra is a cult and the Veda a religio-philosophical school
  • Tantra is for salvation of the soul and the Veda for the enrichment of mind45
  • Vedic knowledge comes mainly through the process of revelation whereas the Tantric knowledge comes mainly through experiences46.

Reconciliation between Tantra and Vedas

At first the Vedic tradition and the Tantric tradition were almost irreconcilable. Each camp looked upon the other as antagonistic, perverse and purposeless. If the Puranas proclaimed that the Tantras were prepared only in order to confound the wicked the Tantras like Kularnava claimed that a Tantra is like an honourable house wife while the Veda with its accessories like Puranas and shastras is like a common harlot. The orthodox view projected mainly by Kumarila (early 6th century) holds that Tantra was meant for the degenerate, the uneducated, the fallen or the infirm and that its rituals were fraught with dangers of all sorts. But the Tantrik enthusiasts held and hold even now that the Vedas being antiquated cannot lead to much good. There was obviously a struggle for ascendance and each tradition geared itself up to meet the needs of both the folk and the elite. And in the process inevitably each modeled itself after the other, assimilated the attractive particulars of the other and attempted to secure the authority and support of the other. The Tantrik adherents sought to show that Tantra had Vedic foundation, Vedic sanction and Vedic authority. The Vedic puritans took over many of the hand gestures (mudras), spells (mantras) and magic designs (mandalas) the Tantriks employed together with their method of exposition47.

The reconciliation between the two divergent traditions was partly effected by the orthodox authorities affiliating the Tantra to the Saubhagya kanda of Atharvaveda and the Tantrik writers relying heavily on Vedic texts like Taittiriya Aranyaka and describing their scriptures as continuation of the Upanishadic traditions. The Vedic rituals adopted numerous Tantrik details and the Tantra abandoned its cruder ideology in favour of the austere aspiration of the Upanishads48.

 Attempts to Sanskritise Tantra

Although later authors of Tantric texts and commentators on these texts sought to base their doctrines and commentaries on the Vedas, Tantra remained a separate branch of knowledge quite outside the pale of Vedic tradition. This was due to the fact that in the ideological conflict between the two tradition, the Veda and Tantra, the latter held its own although many of its theoreticians mostly Brahmins covertly or openly supported the Vedic tradition and fabricated the Tantra in the Vedic lines. In spite of all sorts of Brahmanical interpolations, grafting and handling, Tantra clearly rejects the varna system and patriarchy and in the field of religion, all external formalities in regard to spiritual quests49.

Seeds of Tantra in Atharva Veda

At Mohenjodaro a seal have been discovered with a figure in yogic posture and surrounded by animals and is identified with Shiva. Also a number of conical stone, shell and clay pieces have been found which is identified as a Linga. Similarly a number of terracotta figurines of a female figure have been found which is identified with mother goddess50. All these show that Shiva and mother goddess were worshipped during the time when the urban civilization at Harappa and Mohenjodaro were flourishing. This implies that Tantra flourished during that period as Shaivism and Shaktism are the two aspects of Tantra. Shaktism represents the beginning of Tantra sadhana and Shaivism is the culminating point of the spiritual march51. The urban civilization which flourished at Harappa is identified with the Atharavan phase of the Vedic civilization and this has led scholars to believe that the Atharva Veda as the basis of all the tantras, especially those connected with the worship of the mother goddess. The Sammohana Tantra asserts that without the worship of Kali or Tara there can be no practical application of Atharvan charms and spells52.

The Atharva Veda is an inestimable source of knowledge of the actual popular religion of ancient India and for its populist character had been for centuries tabooed in the upper echelons of the society dominated by the sacerdotal class53. This Veda is quite different from the Rig Veda in content and form and hence was not recognized as a revealed scripture (Sruti). The word trayi which is used to signify the Vedic scriptures does not recognize the Atharva Veda as the fourth Veda. Panani the grammarian of India describes the Veda as trayi and Dayananda Saraswati the founder of Arya Samaj condemn the Atharva Veda as a heretical literature54. As the name of the seers who composed the Atharva Veda did not figure in the traditional lists of the Vedic seers (anukramanis), for long the Atharva Veda was denied the status enjoyed by the trayi55. It was only after the insertion of about 1/7th part of the Rig Veda and associating mythical sages as authors with it did the Atharva Veda get elevated as the fourth Veda56. The Atharva Veda mainly deals with the Tantric cult and covers all the branches of Tantrism. Atharva Veda is a compendium of Vidya Tantra which propagates the philosophy of Brahma Vada and Upavidya Tantra which deals about charms and sorceries57.

Tantras and Puranic Dharma

Among the followers of Vaishnavas and Shaivas were a section of Brahmins who while believing in the worship of Vishnu and Shiva as a means to attain salvation also looked upon the Vedas as authorities, attached great importance to varnashrama dharma and the smrti rules and did not like to give them up. The Puranic Dharma originated from these classes of people who were also the authors of the various Puranas58. As the Trantrics preached ideas and practices which often went against the Brahmanical ones, the early Puranas denounced the Tantras as Mohana Sastra59 and the Tantra scriptures as inferior and tamasi. They agreed that Shiva had revealed the Tantras but his reason for doing so was to delude the apostate and distract him from the true path. In Varaha Purana Rudra himself denounces the Pashupatas and the other followers of the Shaivagamas as given to mean and sinful acts and as addicted to meat, wine and women60.  In chapter 15 of Kurma Purana it is said that the great sinners the Pancaratrins were produced as a result of killing cows in some other birth, that they are absolutely non-Vedic and that the literature of the Shaktas, Shaivas and the Pancaratras are for the delusion of mankind61.

But from about the end of eighth century or the beginning of ninth century A.D. the Puranas began to recognize the Tantras as one of the authorities on religious matters. Tantric mantras and performance of Nyasas and Mudras were introduced in diksha (initiation ceremony), consecration of images, performance of sandhyavandana, and the Yantra as a medium of worship was also recognized. This recognition must have been effected by the great spread of Tantricism among the people including even the Buddhist62 The Devi, Devibhagavata and the Kalika and large portions of Narada Purana are extensively Tantric63

Both Tantras and Puranas are didactic and sectarian. As a rule Tantras contains less historical and legendary matter and more directions as to ritual. While the Puranas approve of Vedic rites as well as other, for which they give directions, the Tantras insist that ceremonies other than theirs prescribed are useless64

 Reasons for Tantra to acquire a negative image

  • Tantras do not believe in caste and creed. Tantric social system runs counter to the rigid Vedic system of caste and creed. There is no place for a Brahmin priest in tantric sadhana. That is why Brahmins started a tirade against tantras and declared the followers of tantras as outcaste65.
  • Another main cause for the apathy towards Tantra was the baseless Aryan bias. Earlier scholars equated Tantra with the so called degraded forms of Hinduism supposed to be the legacies of uncivilized aboriginal cultures. To these learned western scholars just as the Englishmen came to India with a civilizing mission, so also in the past aboriginal Indians were civilized by the Aryans who came from outside. To them whatever is noble and praiseworthy in Hinduism is found in the so called Aryan tradition that is the Vedic texts and Brahmanical literature and all the barbarous and degraded aspects attributed to Tantras are derived from the uncivilized non-Aryans. This idea was also shared by the learned Indians who belonged mostly if not exclusively to the upper strata of society who took pride in thinking of themselves as direct descendants of the great Aryan race66.
  • The practice of Panchamakaras involving wine and women which was considered as obnoxious and revolting and the inclusions of the six magical rites called Satkarmas in the Agamas led people develop a negative attitude towards Tantras.
  • In course of time for some people, Tantric practices became exclusively self-indulgent. Excessive drinking and promiscuous sexual unions marked their so called rituals. As Tantra attaches importance to guru and gurus being hereditary, sometimes a worthless and avaricious son of a guru led to denegation of Tantra. This led western and Indian scholars to believe that obscenity was the soul of this cult and even patriots like Bankim Chandra Chaterjee viewed Tantra as a misguiding principle which offered only wine and women in the name of religion67.

Contributions of Tantra

  • Tantra is the oldest and the most scientific religion of the world. It is the first spiritual faith laying down ethical norms to be strictly observed for the spiritual enlightenment and integrated development of society68.
  • Tantras endeavored to provide a common platform for differing and wrangling sects of Vaishnavas, Shaivas and others by putting forward Devi as the object of worship for all69.
  • The Tantra placed women on a footing of equality with men and accorded them an exalted position. She could play the role of a guru and in certain tantric rites was worshiped as Shakti70.
  • The orthodox Brahmanical scriptures by compartmentalization of society into four castes and by rigorous divisions of the people into higher and lower classes fostered animosity among them. There was an upsurge for leveling down this invidious discrimination. Tantra came forward to reduce the rigours of the caste system and put more premium on merit than the accident of birth71.
  • The murder of a woman is regarded as a heinous crime by Tantrists and they denounced prostitution and burning of widows and allowed remarriage of girl widows72.
  • The popularity of Tantra compelled the orthodox Brahmanical sastra to incorporate Tantra practices. For instance the Tantric concepts of mandala, mudra, yantra, the mystic bija mantras like hrim, krim, kumara puja, etc. crept into the traditional works of the Brahmanas. Similarly Buddhism was also deeply influenced by Tantras73.
  • Tantra developed a system of medical treatment for diseases affecting men, women and children. As the human body was considered essential for Tantric sadhanas, various drugs both herbal and chemical were prescribed for the preservation of youth and virility and for the treatment of diseases; so also medicines for rejuvenation and destroying the effects of various kinds of poisons74.
  • Art and architecture was also influenced by Tantra. There are many images of various Tantric deities particularly of Kali in her different forms. Many temples sculptures particularly of Orissa and south India show an abundance of tantric motifs. Several temples in south India worship Sri Chakra, the yantra associated with the Sri Vidya cult. There are also painting of Kali and other tantric deities as also of mandalas, mudras, yantras and Kundalini75.
  • The rational and liberal outlook of Tantras made it popular in foreign countries like Tibet, Nepal and Cambodia. Thus Tantras played an important role in the spread of Indian religious concepts abroad76.
  • The living Hindu religion of today is essentially Tantric. Even a few genuine Vedic rites that are preserved and are supposed to be derived straight from the Vedas, i.e. the Sandhya have been modified by the addition of tantric practices.77 The rituals of the temples based on Agamas have replaced the Vedic yajnas.78

To be continued

 Bibliography

  1. Victor M. Fic- The Tantras- Its Origin, Theories, Art and Diffusion from India to Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, China, Japan and Indonesia, Abhinav Publications, 2003, pp: 23,24
  2. Lalan Prasad Singh- Tantra- Its Mystic and Scientific Basis, Concept Publishing Company Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2010, p.6
  3. Sures Chandra Banerji- The Cultural Glory of Ancient India, D.K.Printworld (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2000, pp: 112,113
  4. N.Bose & Hiralal Haldar- Tantras – Their Philosophy and Occult Secrets, Firma KLM Private Ltd, Calcutta, 1981,p.20
  5. Gaurinath Sastri, A Concise History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass Publisher Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p.47
  6. N.N.Battacharyya- History of the Tantric Religion, Manohar, 2005, p.20
  7. P.V.Kane –History of Dharmashastra, Vol V, part –II, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1962, p.1049
  8. Ibid, p.1057
  9. Prabuddha Bharata, vol-115, no.6, June 2010, p.373
  10. Kamalakar Mishra- Kashmir Shaivism– The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1999, p.36
  11. Prabuddha Bharatacit, pp:372,373
  12. Nando Lall Kundu- Constructive Philosophy of India, Vol-II (Tantra), Published by Nando Lall Kundu, Calcutta, p.24
  13. Ibid, p.31
  14. Gaurinath Sastri- cit, p.47
  15. Manoranjan Basu- Tantras- A General Study, Published by Shrimati Mira Basu, Calcutta, 1976, p.1
  16. Prabuddha Bharatacit, pp:372,373
  17. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1033
  18. Ibid, pp:1039,1040
  19. Ibid, p.1038
  20. Earnest A Payne- The Shaktas: An Introduction and Comparative Study, Cosmos Publication, New Delhi, 2004, pp:52,53
  21. Kamalakar Mishra- cit, p.14
  22. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.8
  23. N.Bose & Hiralal Haldar- Op.cit, pp:26-29
  24. Babu Dhanapati Banerji- The Evolution of Rudra or Mahesha in Hinduism, QJMS, Vol-X, April 1920, No.3, pp:221,222
  25. Ibid
  26. Manoranjan Basu- cit, p.25
  27. Ramakant Sharma Angiras- Trilogy of Tantra, Natraj Publishing House, Karnal, Haryana, 1989,p.3
  28. Victor M. Fic- cit, p.27
  29. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.43
  30. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, Sri Satguru Publication, New Delhi, 2008, p.57
  31. Studies on the Tantras– Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1989, p.10
  32. Subodh Kapoor- Short Introduction to Shakta Philosophy, Cosmo Publication, New Delhi, 2008, p.68
  33. Sures Chandra Banerji- The Cultural Glory of Ancient India, D.K.Printworld (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2000, p.121 and P.V.Kane-cit, p.1077
  34. Victor M. Fic- cit, p.42
  35. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, p13
  36. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.19
  37. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- The Sivadvaita of Srikantha, University of Madras, 1930, p.1
  38. Surendranath Dasgupta- History of Indian Philosophy, vol- III, Cambridge University Press, 1952, pp: 19,20
  39. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- Op.cit, p.1
  40. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- The Canon of the Shaivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition, Motilal Banarasidass, New Delhi, 1989, p.9
  41. Earnest A Payne- cit, pp:50,51
  42. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1083
  43. S.Suryanarayana Sastri- Op.cit, pp:5,7,8
  44. Vishwa Nath Drabu- A Study in the Socio Economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200 B.C. – A.D.700), Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1990, p.233
  45. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.12
  46. Kamalakar Mishra- cit, p.5
  47. S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Tantra Mantra Yantra, The Tantra Psychology, p.12
  48. Ibid, p.13
  49. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, pp:21-23
  50. B.N.Luniya- Life and Culture in Ancient India, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, Agra, pp:51,52
  51. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp:2,3
  52. Srikantha Sastri- Tantri Hieroglyphics, QJMS, vol-51, No.1, April 1960, p.11
  53. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, p.13
  54. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.22
  55. S.K.Ramachandra Rao-The Tantra of Sri Chakra, Sharada Prakashana, Bangalore, 1983, p.3
  56. Sanjay Sonawani- Origins of the Vedic Religion And Indus ghaggar Civilization, Book Tango, 2015
  57. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, p.23
  58. R.C.Hazra- Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Abinas Press, Calcutta, 1940, pp:193,203,204
  59. Ibid, p.260
  60. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- cit, p.10
  61. Surendranath Dasgupta- cit, p.19
  62. R.C.Hazra- Op.cit, pp:260-262
  63. Mark S.G. Dyczkowski- cit, p.8
  64. Earnest A Payne- cit, p.50
  65. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp: 139,140
  66. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.43
  67. N.N.Battacharyya- Op.cit, p.41 and Sures Chandra Banerji- Op.cit, p.123
  68. Lalan Prasad Singh- cit, pp: 11,12
  69. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1092
  70. P.V.Kane- Op.cit, p.1092 and Sures Chandra Banerji- Op.cit, p.120
  71. S.C.Banerji- A Companion to Tantra, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 2007,p.13
  72. Earnest A Payne- cit, p.59
  73. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, p.122
  74. Ibid, pp:121,122
  75. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, pp:122,123 and S.K.Ramachandra Rao- Sri Chakra, Sri Satguru Publications, New Delhi, 1989,p.1
  76. Sures Chandra Banerji- cit, p.121
  77. P.T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Theosophical Publishing Society, Benaras and London, 1909, p.130
  78. Ibid, pp:124,128
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Mandhata, the first Samrat of Ancient India

The Ikshavaku dynasty also known as the solar dynasty ruling from Ayodhya produced a number of illustrious kings like Mandhata, Sudasa, Harishchandra, Sagara, Bhagiratha and Sri Rama. Though these kings ruled in the remote past they are remembered with reverence even to this day. Of these rulers Mandhatri or Mandhata through his accomplishment became the first ruler of this dynasty to earn the title Chakravarthi and Samrat.

Mandhata (5409 B.C. / 6027 B.C) ⃰ was son of Yuvanashva and Gauri, the daughter of Matinara of the Pauravas. Mandhata’s name figures among the sixteen celebrated monarch of ancient India in the Puranic list called Sodasha Rajika. As his empire was so extensive, a verse mentions that as far as the sun rises and as far as he sets; all that is called Mandhata’s territory and hence even the earth was named after him as Mandhatra Kshetra.

His Campaigns

Mandhata on assuming power organized a strong army and led a series of expedition against his neighbouring kingdoms. The rulers of Kashi and Maithila and his uncle Tansu, the ruler of Prathisthan accepted his suzerainty. Other important rulers whom Mandhata vanquished were Janmejaya the king of Anavas, the Yadava king Sasabindu of Mahishamati and Marutta a king described as one of the five great emperors of ancient India and ruling over territory around North West India. The Asura kingdoms of Varshikha and Narmani were also subdued. Mandhata had a long war with the Druhyu king Angara who ruled over Punjab and finally killed him and conquered his kingdom. Angara’s son Gandhara accepted the suzerainty of Mandhata, moved towards North-West (Afghanistan) and gave his name to that region.

Incarnation of Vishnu

In ancient India a sovereign who conquered the surrounding kingdom and brought them under his control was conferred with the title Chakravarthi. Similarly the king who conquered the whole of Bharatavarsha was celebrated as a Samrat. Mandhata possessed both these titles apart from considered as a fifth incarnation of Vishnu. Mandhata is said to have performed Ashvamedha and Rajasuya yajnas and his name is also included in the list of kings who gained fame by their gifts of cattle. He was a just and virtuous ruler. When a 12 year long famine broke out in North-West India during his period, he took all possible steps to provide relief to the people and end their sufferings. Mandhata had married Bindumati the daughter of Sasabindu the Yadava king and had three sons, Purukutsa, Ambarisha and Muchukunda.

Mandhata met with a tragic end when while returning with his army through Mathura (Muttra) ruled by the Daithyas. Mandhata and his whole army were attacked by the Daithyas and exterminated to the last man and thus ended the glorious career of the greatest Indian monarch after a long reign of some 60 years.

⃰  See https://ithihas.wordpress.com/2013/04/20/date-of-mahabharatha-war/

Reference:

  • Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar- The Hindu History, B.C. 3000 to 1200 A.D., City Publishing House, Faridabad, Dacca, 1920
  • Ganga Ram Garg- Encyclopedia of the Hindu World, Vol-I, Concept Publication Company, New Delhi, 1992
  • Mittal- History of Ancient India (7300 B.C.-4250 B. C.) Vol-I, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2006
  • E.Pargiter- Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, London, 1922

 

The Agastyas- Hindu Missionaries of Ancient India

Among the rishi families who composed the Rig Vedic hymns, it was the members of the Agastya family who first crossed the Vindhya Mountains and established ashrams in south India. The members of this family acted as preceptors of royal dynasties, propagated Shaivism and played an important role in introducing Hindu religion and culture in south-east Asian countries.

In ancient Indian literary works there are references to the activities of Agastya in relation with characters appearing in different time frames. This indicates that a single Agastya could not have achieved all these feats single handedly and unaided. He was therefore the progenitor of a large family and founded a long surviving generation of representatives known by the name of Agastya gotra. The originator of this family Agastya was the brother of sage Vasishta. His descendants composed hymns in the Rig Veda of which we find 27 hymns in the first mandala, one each in the fifth and eighth mandala, two hymns in the ninth mandala and four hymns in the tenth mandala.

Agastya and Lopamudra

One prominent figure among this family was the one who married Lopamudra and was a contemporary of Alarka, grandson of Pratardana of Kashi. This Alarka was a contemporary of king Dushyanta the father of the famous Paurava ruler Bharata after whom our country is named.

Agastya of Ramayana

In Valmiki’s Ramayana, Aranyakanda sarga II describes the beautiful hermitage of Agastya situated at Nasik, a few miles from Dandakaranya where a peaceful atmosphere prevailed. When Rama and Lakshmana visited his ashram, Agastya presented Rama a bow of Vishnu and later Agastya accompanied Rama and his followers on his return journey to Ayodhya from Lanka with Seeta after killing Ravana.

Exploits of Agastya

According to K.D. Abhyankar, the Puranic story of the Vindhya mountain trying to compete with the Himalayas in height by becoming taller and taller and sage Agastya ordering the Vindhya mountain to lie prostrated till he returned from the south is an allegory to the actual crossing of the Vindhyas by Agastya, a prominent rishi of north India for the first time in history. In ancient times, it was easier to cross the seas by navigation. But it was quite difficult to traverse the mountainous land covered with thick forests and inhabited by wild animals. Hence it was a great feat on the part of Agastya to cross the Vindhya Mountain. Similarly the story of Agastya drinking the water of the ocean is another allegory of his crossing the sea and as we know sage Agastya is quite popular in Indonesia, the land beyond the Indian Ocean.

Star Canopus named after Agastya

The star Canopus is named after Agastya as it was first sighted by him. Around 5000 B.C. this star was visible from the south of the Vindhyas, but not from the north of it. As a member of sage Agastya’s family was the first to cross the Vindhyas from the north, he would have been the first northerner to see the star. Hence the star has been named after his family.

Agastya and Tamil

There is no clear and specific mention of Agastya and his exploits in any of the early Tamil works and reference to his work on Tamil grammar called Agattiyam first occur in Iraiyanar Agapporul Urai, a work of the 8th or 9th century A.D. This work mentions Agastya as a member of the first and second Sangams.  Just like the Europeans who have written works on Indian languages after learning them, probably a member of the Agastya clan settled in south India, had learnt Tamil and written a grammatical work which probably has now gone into oblivion.

Founder of Siddha System of Medicine

A daitya named Ilvala who had a grouse against sages used to invite them for lunch, serve the flesh of a goat (which was actually his brother Vatapi turned into a goat) and later call his brother who used to come out ripping the stomach of the diner. Agastya who had gone to Ilvala to seek financial help was also fed in a similar manner but when Ilvala called him, Vatapi could not come out as Agastya had digested him. This incident is probably an allegory to indicate that Ilvala used to kill sages by serving them with poisoned food. A member of Agastya family who was served with poisoned food came out unharmed as he knew about antidotes for food poisoning and was probably the founder of the Siddha system of medicine.

Discoverer of River Cauvery

According to a Tamil work Manimekhalai, Cauvery stream was released by Agastya from his water pot at the request of Chola king Kantan for perennial water. Agastya overturned his pitcher from which Cauvery flowed towards the sea in the east. The Purana also says that Agastya had compressed the River Cauvery and held the water in his water pot and Ganapathi came in the form of a crow and toppled the water pot and got released the river Cauvery. These stories can be interpreted as a member of Agastya family discovering the river Cauvery or naming the discovered river as Cauvery.

Oversea connections of Agastya

Members of this family even migrated to distant lands and introduced Shaivism there. A statue of sage Agastya is found in a Shiva temple in a temple complex at Pramban in Java. Similarly at a cave in Kombeng situated to the north of Muara Kaman in east Borneo we find the image of sage Agastya. Indradevi the queen of the ruler of Kambuja Empire, Indra Varman I (877-889 A.D.) is said to have descended from sage Agastya. In the old Javanese literature we have a work Agastya Parva, where Agastya describes to his son Driddasyu the creation of the world in puranic style.

Cult of Agastya

Members belonging to the Agastya family became the preceptors of royal dynasties. For instance the Pandya king Sundara Pandya is referred as Agastya Shisya ‘disciple of Agastya’. An inscription of Chalukya Kirtiraja of Lata (Gujarat) says that their spiritual preceptor was Agastya. As a preacher and preceptor of Shaiva religion and guru of many princes, Agastya soon came to be regarded as the object of personal worship and a cult of Agastya was soon formulated and his images consecrated in many temples began to receive the honour of worship. The mode of his worship is laid down in the Skanda Purana and Agni Purana. The Agasteshwara temple at Thodnavada in Chittor district, the Meenakshi Agasteshwara temple at Wadapally in Nalgonda district, the Agasteshwara temple at Guntur district all in Andhra Pradesh, the Agasteshwara temple at T.Narasipura in Mysore district of Karnataka and the Agasteshwara temple at Chennai to name a few are some of the temples dedicated to Agastya.

Agastya’s name has often been cited as an example of courage and wisdom which implies that the members of this family were known for their enterprising nature and intelligence. The members of this family played an important role in national integration by synthesizing the culture of north and south India.

References

  1. A.Nilakanta Sastri- A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the fall of Vijayanagara
  2. D.Abhyankar – Folklore and Astronomy: Agastya a Sage and a Star, Current Science, Vol- 89, No. 12, 25th December, 2005
  3. C.Majumdar- Hindu Colonies in the Far East
  4. Swami Parmeshwaranand- Encyclopedic Dictionary of Puranas, Vol-I
  5. C.Gangoly- The cult of Agastya and the origin of Indian colonial art, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society, Vol-XVII, No.3, January 1927
  6. Shrikant Talageri- The Rig Veda- A Historical Analysis
  7. N.Saletore-Encyclopedia of Indian Culture

 

Samkhya Shastra – The World first Philosophical System on Metaphysics

The Samkhya is the first and the oldest among the philosophical systems of India and the whole spiritual life of Hindus was strongly influenced by the Samkhya ideas. John Davies in his work Hindu Philosophy says that the Samkhya system is the first recorded system of philosophy in the world- the earliest attempt on record to give an answer from reason alone to the mysterious questions which arise in every thoughtful mind about the origin of the world, the nature and relations of man and his future destiny.

Philosophical background of Samkhya

Like the other Indian philosophical schools, the object of Samkhya’s philosophical enquiry is to alleviate human sufferings which are of three kinds, namely

  • Aadhyaatmika- Pain caused by disease of the body and mind
  • Aadhibautika- Pain due to extraneous causes like men or beasts and
  • Aadhidaivika- Pain caused by supernatural agencies like nature.

Meaning of Samkhya

Samkhya means number and hence enumeration. As Samkhya system enumerated 25 tattvas (categories) it is likely the philosophy came to be called Samkhya. In Amarakosha the sentence ‘charcha Samkhya vicharana’ means rational examination or discernment and the word Samkhya may be derived from it in the sense of ‘system of rational examination’. Samkhya in general sense means tattvajnana that is knowledge of ultimate reality or a person who know the ultimate reality.

Founder of Samkhya Philosophy

Sage Kapila, son of Prahlada is said to be the originator of Samkhya philosophy. He was a contemporary of king Sagara of Ikshawaku dynasty of Ayodhya and according to Baudhayana Dharma Sutras; it was Kapila who devised the scheme of the four ashramas, namely Brahmacharya, Gruhasta, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. Two books, Tattwa Samaasa and Samkhya Pravachana Sutra are attributed to him. In Bhagavata Purana, Kapila is regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu; the one who burnt the sons of Sagara to ashes and the author of Samkhya philosophy. His name also occurs in the Sveteshvara Upanishad.

Origin of Samkhya

Scholars are divided in their opinion regarding the origins of Samkhya. All agree that references to what appears as Samkhya-Yoga doctrines are found in the Upanishads, especially in the later ones among them. But while some are of the opinion that the Samkhya system is independent in origin and almost as old as the Upanishads, others maintain that it is an off shoot of the teachings of Upanishads. As the works of Kapila, his direct disciple Asuri and that of Panchashiksha are all lost, the tenets of this philosophical system is found only in Samkhya Karika of Ishvarakrishna whose work is dated around 4th century A.D. Reference to this system is also found in Vachaspati’s Samkhya-tattva-kaumudi and Vijnanabhiksu’s commentary on Samkhya Pravachana Sutra.

Antiquity of Samkhya Philosophy

References to Samkhya speculations in the Mahabharatha and the Bhagavad Gita show the great antiquity of this school of philosophy. It is further attested by the fact that the fundamental doctrines of Samkhya School have been elaborately criticized in the Nyaya-sutra and the Brahma-sutra and its thought reproduced in the Caraka-samhita. In Ashvaghosa’s Buddha-carita also similar Samkhya doctrines have been expounded.

Nature of Reality

Samkhya postulates two ultimate realities, Purusha and Prakriti; the interaction of which produces the activities of the universe including those of life.

Purusha

Purusha stands for ultimate selves or spirits which are eternally free, unchanging and absolutely independent entities whose nature consists of pure consciousness alone. Purusha as the self, the subject, the knower is intelligent and makes all knowledge possible. It is not to be confused with the mind, ego or intellect, since these evolutes of Prakriti are material. Purusha is beyond time and space, neutral and a non-agent.

Plurality of Purushas

The Samkhyas believed in the plurality of Purushas on the following grounds. Birth, death and mental and physical capabilities are different for each person. If the atman is the same for all, then birth, death and the endowments must be the same for all. If the atman is the same then when one sleeps, the others also must sleep and so on. There are different kinds of sentient beings, men, birds and beasts. If the atman is the same, these differences cannot be true. But they are true. If the atman is the same, when one atman is liberated, the others also must be liberated. But they are not liberated. If the atman is the same, when one man enjoys the fruits of his action, then other men also must enjoy them. As the Samkhya teaches the existence of many Purushas each living eternally separate from the rest, this system is also described as a school of individualism.

Prakriti

Prakriti (nature or matter) is one, real and is independent of Purusha. The word Prakriti means the original or original nature. All objects are present in Prakriti in a latent form and the world around us with its diversities is the product of Prakriti. In other words, the world is a manifest state of the unmanifest Prakriti (also known as Pradhana). Prakriti or the primordial substance or energy give rise to all material forms, from atom to man. Prakriti is of two forms, one homogeneous (avyakta) or noumenon and the other heterogeneous (vyakta) or phenomena.

The Three Gunas

The three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamas are the constituent elements of the Prakriti. These gunas will either be in the state of equilibrium or in the opposite state in which one or two gunas preponderate over the rest. If they are in the state of equilibrium, they constitute what the Samkhya call Pradhana or avyakta Prakriti. But as soon as their equilibrium ceases, the process of evolution (vyakta) commences. We can never know the real nature of the gunas and Pradhana in its avyakta (noumenon) form; but only in the vyakta or phenomena state.

Causes for Evolution

Evolution begins when the equilibrium of the three gunas are disturbed due to the interference of Purusha which is not through volition as Purusha is devoid of any agency or capacity for action. Hence as the mere contiguity of the cow and the calf is enough to set the milk flowing from the cow; so the mere contiguity of Purusha and Prakriti causes the movement of the latter. The relation between the two is much like the one existing between a magnet and a piece of iron: the influence of Purusha acts like a magnet, setting Prakriti in motion. The cooperation between Purusha and Prakriti is similar to the necessary cooperation between a lame person and a blind person- the blind person carrying the lame person on the shoulders and following the directions given by the latter until they reach their common destination. Prakriti is blind and Purusha like the lame person is unable to move; and hence only their cooperation makes the world-objects possible.

Denied the role of a Creator

The Samkhyas do not believe in a creator or God as according to them God who can have no desires unfulfilled can desire to gain nothing from the creation of the world. The atmans are all perfect originally and are eternal; there is no need of God to create them. Nor can his engaging himself in creation be due to benevolence for before creation jivas have no sense organs, bodies, objects and hence cannot experience pain. In the absence of pain how can there be a benevolent desire to remove it? Hence the Samkhya system is called ‘Nirishvara’ or atheistic system.

The 24 Categories of the Evolution

The first product of evolution is Mahat which is the cosmic intelligence not to be confused with pure intelligence, the Purusha. Next comes Buddhi, its function is to discriminate; to distinguish objects enabling Purusha to experience them. Its intelligence is the reflected intelligence of the Purusha. The next product is Ahankara or self-sense (ego). Ahamkara is said to have three aspects; sattvika ahamkara which contains a high degree of sattva guna and produces the manas (mind), the five jnanendriyas (sense organs- namely sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch) and the five karmendriyas (motor organs- namely tongue, the feet, the hands, the organs of excretion and of generation). The tamasika ahamkara which contains a high degree of tamas produces the five tanmatras (subtle elements- namely sound, touch, form, flavor and odour) and the five Bhutadi (gross elements- namely ether, air, fire, water and earth). The rajasika ahamkara does not directly produce anything but helps the other two gunas in their function to produce the evolutes.

Purpose of Evolution

The purpose of evolution is for the Purusha to enjoy and suffer, to experience and interpret and thereby become capable of distinguishing between himself and Prakriti so that he could dissociate himself from the binding Prakriti. Prakriti therefore functions for the enjoyment and liberation of Purusha and their association is thus temporary.

Bondage and Emancipation

According to Samkhya the cause of misery is wrong knowledge, by which one identifies Purusha with Prakriti. There is bondage and misery as long as a Purusha mistakenly identifies itself with buddhi, ahamkara and manas in which it is reflected. As soon as the Purusha realizes that it is not the intellect or ego or mind, that it is not Prakriti- it is liberated. The discriminatory knowledge which makes liberation possible is obtained through right knowledge, reflection and spiritual discipline. As for spiritual discipline, Samkhya relies on the practical steps developed fully in Yoga, which is referred as the practical aspect of Samkhya.

Significance of Samkhya Philosophy

  • Several millennium before Darwin, the Samkhya School of philosophy propounded the theory of evolution. But unlike Darwin theory which believed in the linear growth of organism from primitive to refined, Samkhya propounded the cyclic theory of evolution followed by dissolution.
  • The giant among European philosophers, Immanuel Kant spoke about ‘a thing in itself’ called noumenon which cannot be known and only the attributes of its opposite, phenomenon can be known. This view was articulated centuries earlier by the Samkhyas who called noumenon as avyakta or the real nature of Prakriti and its traits can never be known.
  • Reference to the three gunas and the practice of meditation as enunciated by Samkhya-Yoga school are also found in the Bhagavad Gita.
  • The Jains believe in the plurality of souls as enunciated by the Samkhyas and along with Buddhists accept meditation, a kind of yogic practice for attaining Nirvana or salvation.
  • Today Yoga has been acclaimed worldwide as a practice for the wellbeing of body and mind. And the philosophical basis of Yoga is provided by Samkhya.
  • Bibhu Padhi and Minakshi Padhi in their work Indian Philosophy and Religion say that Samkhya contains the seeds of the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta.
  • The Tantra system was also influenced by the Samkhya philosophy.
  • Finally regarding the significance of Samkhya philosophy the Mahabharatha (Shanthiparva) say that whatever knowledge is found in the Vedas, Yoga, in the various Puranas, in Ithihasa and Arthashastra and whatever knowledge exists in the world, all are derived from the Samkhya.

Reference

  1. Bibhu Padhi and Minakshi Padhi – Indian Philosophy and Religion
  2. T.Raju- The Philosophical Traditions of India
  3. Shantaram Anant Desai- A Study of the Indian Philosophy
  4. Radhakrishnan- Indian Philosophy
  5. T.Srinivasa Iyengar- Outlines of Indian Philosophy
  6. Swami Prabhavananda- The Spiritual Heritage of India
  7. Yogi Ramachakra- The Inner Teachings of the Philosophies and Religions of India
  8. Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam, Edited- Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy
  9. P.V.Kane- History of Dharmashastra, Vol- 2, part-I and Vol-5, part-II
  10. Erich Frauwallner- History of Indian Philosophy, Vol-I, Translated from original German into English by V.M.Bedekar

 

Manu Vaivasvata – The Progenitor of Hindu Royal Dynasties

The Puranas give the names of the 14 Manus. The life span of each Manu is said to be one Manvantara consisting of 71 chaturyugas (each yuga consisting of Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali). Manu Vaivasvata is said to be the seventh Manu and the Manu of the present age from whom all ruling dynasties of ancient India trace their origin. The unreasonable life span assigned to the predecessors of Manu Vaivasvata makes their very existence a myth. Also the mentioning of the future Manus when the present age is still in vogue shows that the information is just prophesy. Hence only Manu Vaivasvata can be consider as a historical person.

Manu was the son of Vivasvan and Savarna. His father Vivasvan was the brother of Indra and son of sage Kashyapa and Adithi. In the Rig Veda Manu is spoken as the father of mankind and was the first to offer sacrifice. Manu had his capital at Ayodhya on the banks of river Sarayu. Kautilya reveals that people suffering from anarchy first elected Manu Vaivasvata to be their king and allotted 1/6th of the grains grown and 1/10th of the merchandise as sovereign due. Fed by this payment kings took upon themselves the responsibility of maintaining the safety and security of their subjects. His eldest son Ikshavaku succeeded him and he was the founder of the solar dynasty. Manu’s daughter (adopted) Ila married Budha and their heir was Pururava, the originator of lunar dynasty. Manu was a good administrator and peace and prosperity prevailed in his kingdom. He was a great lover of learning and religion. Kalhana has recorded that even during the reign of Kashmir monarch, Jayapida, the 5th successor of Lalitaditya Muktapida (712-750 A.D.) Manu along with Mandhatra, Rama and others was remembered as a great sovereign.

Probable Period of Manu Vaivasvata

Two probable dates arrived by scholars on the occurrence of Mahabharatha war are 3067 B.C. and 2449 B.C. In Vayu Purana we have a total of 94 kings from Manu to Bhrihadbala belonging to the Ikshavaku dynasty. According to D.R.Mankad the Puranas computed the number of kings of a dynasty on the basis of units of 40 years or caturyugas. Hence the date of Manu can be arrived if we multiply 40 years (that is the number of years each ruler lived) X 94 generations = 3760 and add either 2449 or 3067 (dates of Mahabharatha War) to calculate the date of Manu, that is 6209 if the date of Mahabharatha War is taken as 2449 or 6827 if the date of Mahabharatha War is taken as 3067.

Manu Smrti – Code of Manu

Manu Vaivasvata is the author of Manu Smrti the first book on Hindu jurisprudence. As he had to organize his state composed of different groups of people, he probably had drafted the dharma shastras (codes). It is said to be based on an earlier work entitled Svayambhuva Sastra written by Svayambhuva Manu. But as Svayambhuva Manu appears to be a mythical person, the authorship of the said work could be given to Manu Vaivasvata. According to P.V.Kane the extant Manu Smrti was composed between 2nd century B.C. and 2nd century A.D. and it is almost impossible to say who composed it. Probably the extant Manu Smrti was based on the original Manu Smrti composed by Manu Vaivasvata and a person who had access to the original manuscript, made additions to it and suppressing his identity published it as Manu Smrti with a view to invest the work with a halo of antiquity and authoritativeness. This interpretation we can deduce if we critically analyze the extant Manu Smrti. The present work contains 12 chapters. Except the seventh and eighth chapters which deal with the duties of kings and ministers and with law and justices, the rest of the chapters deal with castes, duties of Brahmins, pure and impure food, about vratas, shradda, yagas, kinds of marriages, etc. As we know the growth of caste system, the rituals associated with various ceremonies like yagas, marriages, etc. was a later development. So except those dealing with law, justice and governance, the rest of the topics could be interpolations. The Bible in India says that the Manu Smrti was the foundation upon which the Egyptian, the Persian, the Grecian and the Roman codes of law were built.

References

  1. Ganga Ram Garg- Encyclopedia of the Hindu World, vol-I, Concept Publication Company, New Delhi, 1992
  2. Har Bilas Sarda- Hindu Superiority, Rajputana Printing Works, Ajmer, 1906
  3. V.Kane- History of Dharmashastra, vol-I, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1930
  4. Kumar Mazumdar- Early Hindu India, A Dynastic Study, Vol-I, Cosmo, New Delhi, 1981.
  5. K.Pruthi (Edited) – Vedic Civilization, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi, 2004
  6. N.Saletore- Encyclopedia of Indian Culture, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi.
  7. C.Singhal and Roshan Gupta- The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period, a New Interpretation, Atlantic Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 2003
  8. Vettam Mani- Puranic Encyclopedia, Motilal Banarsidass, 1975