Monthly Archives: March 2017

Demythologizing the Historic Krishna

Sri Krishna the hero of the Yadavas and counselor of the Pandavas was the main character in the epic Mahabharatha.  If not for his teachings contained in the Bhagavad Gita, now a part of Mahabharatha, the said epic would have been a bland story of a quarrel between cousin brothers. In the annals of ancient Indian history, Krishna possessed a unique personality. A master political strategist, he refused to ascend the throne of Mathura, though it was the wish and plea of his fellowmen1. Krishna was a master of various arts like the art of healing2 and in the art of driving chariots3. He was also a good singer and musician4. He invented a new weapon; the Sudharshan Chakra5. Krishna was the first socio-religious reformer of India who questioned the significance of the dry rituals of the Vedas6 and in its place founded an egalitarian and universally applicable religion called Bhagavatism7. Its philosophy now contained in the Bhagavad Gita teaches paths to salvation through selfless action (karmayoga), devotion (bhaktiyoga) and meditation (dhanyayoga). In fact the vast literature known as Upanishads, which the whole world admires, contains the teachings of Bhagavad Gita as its kernel8.

But over the centuries, various myths were built around Krishna’s personality with some of the events associated with him being exaggerated and interpolated with stories which blemished his character. Some of his views/opinions on statecraft and ethics were also appropriated and its credit given to other historical characters9. In this article, an attempt has been made to demythologize some of the myths associated with Krishna and to find the reason behind this act of interpolating his history with absurdities.

Critical evaluation of Sources

Is it possible to write objectively on Krishna’s history? Yes if we critically evaluate the sources which give us information about him, namely the Puranas and the epic, Mahabharatha.  First we will critically examine the Puranas. Amara Simha in his lexicon Amarakosa spoke of the five characteristics which Puranas possessed, namely-

  1. Sarga- about creation;
  2. Pratisarga- about recreation;
  3. Vamsa- genealogy of gods and sages;
  4. Manvantara- cosmic cycles and
  5. Vamsanucharita- accounts of royal dynasties.

Except for the Vishnu Purana, none of the present Puranas have these five characteristics10.

By the middle of 4th century A.D. the Puranas gradually began to lose their original character and turned into important codes of Hindu rites and customs by including chapters on varnashramadharma, achara, shraddha, prayashichita, dana, puja, vrata, thirtha, diksha, utsarga, etc11.  Consequently the accounts of the genealogies of kings and sages were little cared for and often fabricated. People also took absolute liberty in making changes in the text resulting in the increase of textual corruption in the Puranas12.

With regards to information on Krishna, except for the Vishnu Purana, Brahma Purana, Bhagavata Purana and Brahma Vaivarta Purana, the story of Krishna is very briefly told in the other Puranas and their accounts is in no way different from those given in the first four Puranas named above13. Even among these four Puranas, the original Brahma Vaivarta Purana is lost and the present Brahma Vaivarta Purana is a modern creation of some enthusiastic religious scholar14, while the Bhagavata Purana is based on some other older Purana15. Coming to the Brahma Purana, the account of Krishna given in this Purana and Vishnu Purana is identical word for word in 26 chapters. This means that both the Puranas have quoted these 26 chapters narrating the career of Krishna from some other older work16. As Vishnu Purana is the only one which has retained some characteristics which a Purana should possess as mentioned by Amara Simha, only this Purana can be relied for reconstructing the history of Krishna.

Coming to the Mahabharatha, Vyasa had composed only the essence of Mahabharatha comprising 8800 shlokas and that work was known as Jaya. Vaishampayana added a few verse of his own and brought the number of shlokas to 24,000 and gave the book the name, Bharata Samhita. It was Suta who made many more addition and made the book so big as to fetch it the name Mahabharatha. It took perhaps centuries to get this transformation of the book from Jaya to Mahabharatha17.

Hence on the nucleus of the family feud of the Kauravas and Pandavas, in its present form the  Mahabharatha contains myths and legends pertaining to Brahmanical philosophy, ethics and law stressing the superiority of Brahmins, myths of Vishnu and Siva, fables, parables, fairy tales and moral stories18. With regards to information on Krishna, he appears for the first time in the epic at the svayamvara of Draupadi where he had come from Dwaraka and the epic is silent as to his earlier life. This is because the Mahabharatha is principally concerned itself with the history of the Bharatas. The Harivamsha which forms the supplement of Mahabharatha deals exhaustively and exclusively with the life and history of Krishna on which the Mahabharatha is silent19.

A critical study of the Harivamsha reveals that the descriptions of things in the Vishnu Purana are all expanded in the Harivamsha. The Harivamsha is a later work than Vishnu Purana and the story of Krishna that it gives is apparently borrowed from Vishnu Purana20.

Hence it is quite apparent that the works such as the Puranas and the Mahabharatha were made the vehicles by various enthusiastic writers of different cults at different times to promulgate their own dogmas and doctrines. They became the store houses of writings of all sorts of men of all shades of opinions, nay of any and everyone who thought that he had written something clever. From big books to single couplets, everything was thrust into them by every sort and grade of men who desired to publish their composition and to secure for them a wide circle of readers21.

Therefore the story of Krishna’s life is chiefly found in the Vishnu Purana and the Mahabharatha; one about the early life and the other about his later life. But both of them in their present form are mixed with annals, legends and fictions22. But by putting the searching light of history, analysis and logic, it would not be difficult to find out which portions of it are fictions and stories and which are after-interpolations23.

Why interpolation/slander of Krishna took place?

Bhagavatism the religion founded by Krishna was not very favourably inclined towards the varnashramadharma and the Brahmins. This religion freely admitted women, shudras and even foreigners into its fold.24 And from about the beginning of the 5th century A.D. if not earlier, the Vaishnavas (Bhagavatas and Pancharatras) and probably the Shaivas came to be influenced by Tantricism. It is not yet definitely known how and when Tantricism arouse but that it is of considerable antiquity cannot be denied. Tantricism was purely of non-Vedic in origin and its ideas and practices were also non-Vedic. In its early character it did not seem to have recognized the varnashramadharma and the authority of the Vedas25. The ideas, rites and practices of Pancharatras (the aagamic literature of the Vaishnavas), aagamic Shaivas and the Tantriks amply testify to their non-Brahminical or rather anti- Brahmanical character. These sectarian faiths discouraged priesthood, and its rituals which were all non-Vedic affected the Brahmins very seriously26 (in terms of their livelihood). The rise and propagation of these rival faiths proved very fatal to the sacrificial religion of the Vedas which was already on the decline27. To reestablish the varnashramadharma and the authority of the Vedas, the Brahmins introduced smrti materials into the Mahabharatha and the Puranas28.

The varnashramadharma and Vedic rituals must have had been proved quite sophisticating, stifling for all and sundry of the ancient Indian society. The people and society was wallowing in the grip of superstitions, rituals and cumbersome process of prestation society. Moreover, the priestly class must have had been interfering in every walk of life as they had woven such intricate web of ‘dry rituals’ in each and every aspect of individual and collective life that it might have had been quite exasperating. The rigid and stratified social order might have had been proving to be anathema to the progress and development. Krishna had not only broken the backbone of this prestation society by establishing a monotheistic sect Bhagavata and propounding Samkya yoga, but also virtually abolished the varnashramadharma and the stratification thereof. The Samkya Yoga and Bhagavat Sect that Krishna founded had led to the loss of power and privilege of the priestly classes. He punished and dethroned anti-people, cruel and selfish kings and emphasized on debate and discussion, making ruling elites sensitive to public opinion29.

Krishna had ushered in social revolution by stopping the worship of serpents, ghost and superstitious figures like Indra30. Krishna had become the biggest threat to the two classes or castes of Indian society- social and political elites (priestly and political class). He gave an open challenge to the priestly class by opposing the system of worshiping based on fear and greed (of getting heaven or birth in a rich and prosperous family) and terming Vedas and Vedic ritual as obstruction instead31. Hence they (priestly and political class) started the greatest farce of the humanity. Gita was distorted, Krishna was mystified and made god so that nobody could dare to repeat his great acts. There were many insertion made in the Gita related to the varnashrama based caste system which was against the very principle and values of Krishna. The Avatar system was concocted to prevent any repetition of Krishna like acts by any human being in future32.

Interpolation also took place as the authors who revised the Puranas and epics wanted to make them amusing and interesting to the masses before whom they were recited and sung. Hence fanciful and poetic descriptions and extraordinary miracles were added to them over the years33.

The priests of Shiva were the last to retouch the Mahabharatha and as there is as much Shaivism in the Mahabharatha as there is Vaisnavism; sectarian rancor may have been responsible for inventing some incidents and darkening the character of Krishna34.

Myths on Krishna decoded

Now we shall scrutinize some of the myths/exaggerated accounts related to Krishna’s life mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharatha and through logic and critical analysis find the actual facts.

Myth– Putana a rakshasi was deputed by Kamsa to kill Krishna. She went to his house in disguise as a gopa woman and fed him on her breasts. But Krishna the child extracted her life also with her breast milk and she assumed her original form and fell down dead35.

Fact– During his childhood Krishna was attacked with a fatal disease named Putana which has been referred by Susruta in his work Uttara Tantra, chapter 27 and 3736.

Myth– A fierce serpent called Kaliya lived in Kalindi. The trees on the banks of the river were withered and dried up on account of the poisonous breadth emitted by him. One day the Gopalas and their cattle drank water in the Kalindi and fell down dead. Krishna then jumped into the river, fought with kaliya, who being defeated begged for mercy. At the instance of Krishna, Kaliya with his family left the place37.

Fact– At Vrindavana lived a settlement of Nagas whose chief was Kaliya. The Gopas were in great fear of the fierce Nagas. Krishna challenged the Naga chief to a single combat and in a fierce encounter defeated Kaliya. Krishna then commanded him to leave the forest which the Nagas did38.

Myth– Once Krishna picked up the clothes of Gopa women bathing in Yamuna river39.

Fact– The incident of Krishna removing the clothes of the maidens when they were bathing described in the Bhagavata Purana is the creations of the author of Bhagavata Purana according the Dhirendra Nath Pal40. Whether this incident is fictitious or real, a more reasonable explanation which one can give is that having seen some maidens bathing all naked in river Yamuna, Krishna collected their clothes lying under a tree and placed it up in the tree. Later when the maidens expressed their regrets; Krishna returned their clothes with a warning not to repeat the act of bathing naked in public places41.

Myth– The people of Vrindavana used to perform yajna every year in favour of Indra for rainfall. Krishna opposed it and instead asked them to worship mount Govardhana. Angered by this Indra let loose heavy rains on Vrindavana. Krishna uprooted and held mount Govardhana like an umbrella and people took shelter under it. Beaten at this own game, Indra sang the praises of Krishna, came and saluted him42.

Fact– It is impossible to believe that a boy of ten years of age or for that matter any being in human form could have lifted a mountain and held it on his finger. Probably Krishna might have dug a big cave in which his people and cattle took shelter during the rains. It might be an allegory signifying that the Indra worshippers finding their god slighted attacked the Gopas and made an attempt to destroy their new sacrifice and that Krishna in this armed attack protected the hill on which the Gopas took shelter43. It is also probable that there occurred heavy during the time of the yajna which flooded the Yamuna and Govardhana. Krishna while grazing cattle near the Govardhana Mountain might have gained good knowledge about the terrain of the said mountain which had large caves there. At the time of the floods, Krishna shifted the residents to the caves in Govardhana and saved them. For that he was given the title, ‘Giridhar’44.

Myth– At the advent of spring the melody of Krishna’s flute rendered the Gopa women lovelorn. Gopa women both married and unmarried mad with love roamed about Vrindavana with Radha calling ‘o Krishna’, ‘o Krishna’. Krishna appeared, entered the waters of Yamuna with them and satisfied them45.

Fact– Raasa means simply a dance. Sridhara Swami the great commentator of the Bhagavata, thus explains the word. ‘It is a circular dance of men and women by holding one another’s hand’. Such dances were very popular amongst the people in which Krishna was born. There was nothing wrong in these amusements and none was charged with carnality who joined in them. Hence the Raasa leela of Krishna is nothing but the innocent sports of merry boys and girls at Vrindavana. Krishna was a mere boy about eleven years of age when these sports were held. It is possible for a boy of eleven to entertain any idea of carnality? When Krishna was most foully abused by Shishupala, he was never charged by him with sensuality. If Krishna really did what some of the Puranas wanted us to believe, he would not have been spared by Shishupala. Nowhere in the Mahabharatha, which is a much earlier work than any one of the Puranas, have we found Krishna described as a man of lewd character46.

Radha is a poetical creation. She is not to be found in the Mahabharatha, or in Vishnu Purana or Harivamsha or Bhagavata ⃰. Perhaps she is the creation of the author of the original Brahma Vaivarta Purana which is now lost. It is possible that the author of this Purana picked up one of the many gopa maidens who sported with Krishna in the Vrindavana and giving her a name, he painted her in the highest flight of poesy. Since then innumerable poets have used their great powers to develop the character of Radha. Her love for Krishna has been painted as the highest development of devotional love of the human soul for the supreme one47. Bhasa in his two dramas Balacharita and Panchasatra refers to Hallisaka dance of the cowherd boys and girls. The latter’s names are Ghosa, Sundari, Vanamala, Candrarekha and Mrigaksi and Radha is conspicuous by her absence even in Harivamsha and Vishnu Purana48.

Myth– Krishna went to Pragjyotisa the kingdom of Narakasura, defeated him and released his 16,000 daughters from captivity. After returning to Dwaraka along with them, Krishna assumed the guise of 16,000 men and married these 16,000 girls49.

Fact– In the Mahabharatha, Harivamsha, Vishnu Purana and other Puranas there are many accounts of Krishna’s various wars. But they are narratives, full of extraordinary descriptions and it would be mere waste of time to make an attempt to pick up from them any historical facts and this include the story of Krishna’s war with Narakasura and his rescuing and marrying the sixteen thousand women imprisoned by Naraka50.

But some historians who believe in this story opine that it is not sixteen thousand but 16 wives of Narakasura whom Krishna married. According to them sixteen thousands of the Puranas mean 16 only. Shata and sahasra (100 and 1000) are very often meaningless addition in the Vedic parlance51. This story is also interpreted in another way where Narakasura is depicted as a dacoit who looted brides and marriage parties. Krishna killed him and liberated all the women. But neither their parents nor husbands were willing to accept them. Krishna told the Yadavas to take these women so that they get a home and a name for their children. But none agreed. Hence Krishna married them and gave them a home. Thus he set an example for the relatives of these women who are raped and are then left alone either to commit suicide or to become a prostitute52.

Myth– Krishna had 80 sons, ten each born to his eight wives namely Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Satya, Bhadra and Lakshana53.

Fact– The list of wives of Krishna given in the various chapters of Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha differs in numbers and names. Except Rukmini and Satyabhama none of these wives ever appear on the scene of action. Satyabhama appears only once or twice, but those places of the Puranas or Mahabharatha in which she appears are apparently interpolations. Again none of the sons of these wives except of Rukmini and Jambhavati is to be met with in any period of Krishna’s life. Jambhavati was a bear’s daughter and therefore it is impossible to believe that she gave birth to a human being. It is said this son Samba carried away the daughter of Duryodhana name Lakshana. This story is mentioned only in the Puranas; no mention is made of it in the Mahabharatha. If this story had any truth in it, it must have a place in the Mahabharatha which is the history of Duryodhana and the Kurus. Rukmini’s son Pradumna however is present all through Krishna’s career. It is his grandson, Vajra, who finally ascended the throne of the Vrisnis. Under the circumstances we shall not be very wrong if we doubt the very existence of any other wives of Krishna except Rukmini54.

Myth– Krishna taught Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna on the eve of the battle at Kurukshetra.

Fact– It is hard to believe that the armies of Pandavas and Kauravas were waiting till Krishna recited the eighteen adhyayas (chapters) of Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna55. As we know the Gita is in verse form and nowhere have we found people talking in verse. It is nowhere mentioned in the Mahabharatha that the Rishi Vyasa was present when Krishna told it to Arjuna or when Sanjaya recited it to the king Dhritarashtra. Thus we can by no means trace the Gita as it now exists to Krishna56. Moreover the present Gita contains innumerable interpolations and grafting of Brahmanical discourses, particularly in respect of Vedic authority, rituals and varnasharama. This has distorted the Gita and has transformed it into a confusing treatise with several passages contradictory with one another. How could the same Krishna adhere to the supremacy of the Vedas and the Vedic rituals which he considered as obstruction for, liberation57?

It has also been proved by many great oriental scholars that the present Gita is a work written many years subsequent to the time when the original Mahabharatha was written. But by whomsoever written it was written based on the teachings of Sri Krishna. Krishna delivered a lecture to the Pandavas just before the great battle and Vyasa must have briefly mentioned it in the original Mahabharatha he wrote. It was quite natural that Arjuna and the Pandavas should be filled with great despondency when they came face to face with their dearest friends and relatives whose death meant their victory. To remove this despondency Krishna had lectured them and this was briefly mentioned by Vyasa in the original Mahabharatha. A subsequent writer wrote the present Gita in verse based on these teachings. It is evident from the meager accounts that we get of Krishna in the Puranas and the Mahabharatha that he founded and preached a new religion; but neither the Puranas nor the Mahabharatha clearly say what it was. The little of his teachings that we meet with in the Puranas and the Mahabharatha leads one to conclude that his religion could not but be that which has been told in the Gita 58.

Myth– During the Mahabharatha war Drona was killed deceitfully on the advice of Krishna. It is written that when Krishna found it impossible for the Pandavas to kill Drona, he advised them to leave the path of righteousness and kill Drona by a most shameful stratagem. He advised them to go and tell Drona that his son Ashwathama was killed. It he hear this news, he would be overwhelmed with grief and he would surely give up arms. Arjuna flatly refused to do it but Yudhisthira hesitatingly agreed. Bhima then killed an elephant named Ashwathama and went to Drona and told him that his son was dead. Drone did not believe Bhima’s words and said that he would believe none except that embodiment of virtue, Yudhisthira. So Yudhisthira went and said-‘Ashwathama was dead’, adding in a low voice, ‘Ashwathama the elephant’. On hearing this Drona left his arms and Dhristadumna cut off his head59.

Fact-This story is a palpable fiction as it is impossible to believe that Yudhisthira who went to exile only to keep his word would tell a lie or Krishna who spoke of the Gita would advise him to do so. It is written in the Mahabharatha itself that Ashwathama obtained immorality by his asceticism. Drona was fully aware of it. It is not possible that he should take even Yudhisthira’s words as truth knowing fully well that his son could not die. It is also impossible that a man like Krishna should advise to say something which was in the face of it could not be taken as true. It is also impossible that Drona would not ask anyone of his party to enquire whether Ashwathama was really dead of not. Drona’s death was due to fatigue and his great religious devotion for which he gave up arms and concentrated his mind on god, determined to die instead of retiring from the field with ignominy and shame. This story was subsequently added to save the great Panchala dynasty from the reproach of their prince having killed a Brahman, – an act which in later age became one of the greatest sins amongst the Hindus 60.

It might be asked why this scandalous incident has been fastened on Krishna. It is very easy to explain. The answer would be ‘because he was God and to God, right or wrong, sin or virtue are all alike for nothing touches him’. The poetaster who made these foolish embellishments over the descriptions of great Vyasa has fastened on Krishna all wrongful acts done on the Pandava side; for the poor fellow thought that he would thereby save the reputation of the Pandavas without doing any harm to anybody; for nobody would blame Krishna for anything as he was the incarnation of God. Such writers have done the greatest possible injury to our great religion and great men61.

Myth– During his last days Krishna retired into the deepest forest and lay down on the ground with his feet raised. An asura called Jara mistaking Krishna’s raised feet for a deer, shot it with his arrow and Krishna expired. There is a story behind the reason why Krishna died after his feet was hit by an arrow. Once sage Durvasa went to Dwaraka as Krishna’s guest. One day he expressed his desire to taste pudding and accordingly was served the same. After tasting it Durvasa asked Krishna to smear his whole body with the leftover pudding. Krishna did so, except the region below his feet. Then Durvasa smeared the body of Rukmini with the remaining pudding, yoked her to a chariot, whipped her and rode on the streets of Dwaraka with Krishna running after him. After going some distance, Durvasa jumped out of the chariot and went to the forest. Before that he told Krishna that he was pleased with the service accorded to him by them and said that Rukmini would not be affected by old age and Krishna would never meet with death by being hit at those parts of his body which had been smeared with the pudding. As Krishna had not smeared his feet with the pudding, he was killed by the hunter’s arrow62.

Fact– This story is evidently an allegory. Jara means old age and Krishna died of old age in a forest63. With regards to the story of Durvasa smearing the body of Krishna and Rukmini with pudding we can easily make out that this is one among the numerous stories interpolated in the Mahabharatha to show that Brahmins had power to change the destiny of even Gods.

Need to bring critical editions on Krishna’s history

The teachings of Krishna contained in the Bhagavad Gita is universal in outlook and if we want to showcase his teachings to the world then we have to first expunge all absurdities and silly fables interpolated in the literary sources providing information about his life and times. Even the Gita which has been interpolated with contradictory statements has to be critically edited.

One reason why fables were interpolated and incidents exaggerated by editors of Puranas and epics was to amuse the masses to whom these were recited. But now times have changed and with access to modern education and information available at the touch of their fingertips, people no longer believe in things which defy commonsense and logic. Moreover all these texts are being translated into English and other languages of the world. If absurdities and silly descriptions contained in these texts are not removed, Hindus stand exposed in the world as those who are immature and believe in cock and bull stories.

By not bringing critical editions of the Puranas and the epics we are providing ammunitions to Hindu baiters who ridicule historic Hindu personalities and sages by citing the information provided in the Puranas and epics. It is no use blaming Marxists for depicting Hindu society in poor light as they do so by quoting the Puranas and epics.

Today only a minuscule percentage of Brahmins have priesthood as their calling. Majority of them have foraged into different professions. Just for the sake of protecting their main source of livelihood, that is through gifts (dana and dakshina) the Brahmins of yore had written about the merits of giving gifts to Brahmins and also about their superior status in the society in the Puranas and epics. Times have now changed and it is high time we get rid of these additions to make the Puranas and epics as the true history books of ancient India.

Compared to Muslims and Christians, the present Hindu society is not cohesive. The main reason is the caste system, in which some caste groups consider themselves as superior to other castes. This illusion of superiority among the upper castes especially the Brahmins is mainly due its reference in the Puranas and epics which majority of them believe as divinely sanctioned. They are not aware of the fact that these books have been revised several times by common people and unscrupulous men with ulterior motives had interpolated them with falsehoods.  The castes so considered as the lowest in the Hindu caste hierarchy fall easy prey to missionaries who take advantage of this schism in the Hindu society to convert them to their respective faiths. These missionaries in fact make use of the Puranas and epics which depict the Shudras and women in poor light to propagate their faiths in bright colours and claim that their faiths stand for equality.

 Bibliography

  1. During the time of Krishna, it was a practice for a person who dethroned a king to ascend the vacant throne. In the history of ancient India we find none who did not avail himself of this privilege except Krishna. For a cow herd boy to withstand the great temptation of becoming a king and to refuse the supplications of the whole Yadu race bespoke a strong will. Cited in Dhirendra Nath Pal- Sri Krishna- His Life and Teachings, Published by C.C.Basak, The Research Home, Calcutta, 1923, p. 84.
  2. Ibid, p.76
  3. Ibid, p.386
  4. Ibid, p.48
  5. The chief weapon of Krishna was a discus- a circular steel instrument with sharp edges all round which he used to throw at the enemy by whirling it on his finger. It was a tremendous weapon of offence. Ibid, pp:207,208
  6. Krishna was opposed to the sacerdotalism of the Vedic religion and preached the doctrines which he had learnt from Ghora Angirasa. His opposition to the Vedic cult comes out in passages where Indra when vanquished humbled himself before Krishna. S.Radhakrishnan, The Bhagavad Gita, George Allen & Unwin (India) Pvt Ltd, 1971, p.29.
  7. There is a consensus among scholars in favour of the view that Krishna, a warrior chief and religious teacher of the Yadava clan founded in ancient India a monotheistic religious system called Bhagavata or Sattvata Dharma. The cult gained momentum and flourished steadily and Krishna the nucleus of the cult was apotheosized even before 5th century B.C. Janmajit Roy- Theory of Avatara & Divinity of Chaitanya, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2002, p. 26.
  8. Bhagavad Gita contains a total synthetic view of life and it would be more reasonable to accept the kernel of the teachings of Bhagavad Gita as forerunner of the vast class of literature known as Upanishad. Ibid, p.132
  9. Bhishma’s wisdom on the statecraft, war, thumb of the rules for conducting the stately affairs, the pro-people, just equalitarian rule and related subjects as imparted to Yudhisthira after his coronation as king of Hastinapur after the great war while he was lying on deathbed seem to be that of Krishna’s appropriated to the patriarch, perhaps to counter balance the latter. This also seems to be interpolation as to how a dying man could preach such wisdom and ideas on the statecraft. Moreover his teachings seem to be more of Krishna’s than that of Bhishma. Gopal Chowdhary – The Greatest Farce of History, Partridge India, 2014, p. 114
  10. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp: xv, xvi
  11. Rajendra Chandra Hazra- Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1987, p.6
  12. Ibid, p.7
  13. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xxiii
  14. Ibid, p. xxiv
  15. Ibid, p. xxv
  16. Ibid,
  17. Vettam Mani- Puranic Encyclopedia, Motilal Banarsidass, 1975, p.122
  18. D.Pusalker- The Epic and Puranas, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1955, p. xxi
  19. Ibid, p.58
  20. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xxvi
  21. Ibid, pp: xxxi, xxxii
  22. Ibid, pp: xxiii, xxxiv
  23. Ibid, p. ix
  24. Rajendra Chandra Hazra- Op.cit, pp: 199, 200
  25. Ibid, p.218
  26. Ibid, p. 225
  27. Ibid, p. 194
  28. Ibid, p. 213
  29. Gopal Chowdhary – Op.cit, p. 203
  30. Ibid, p. 56
  31. Ibid, p.107
  32. Ibid, p. 154
  33. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xlix
  34. D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 60
  35. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 421
  36. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:25,26; A.D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 68
  37. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 422
  38. D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 69; According to Dhirendra Nath Pal, Kaliya was a thief of the wild men who was driven out of Vrindavan by Krishna (p.43)
  39. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 423
  40. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.67
  41. P.Mittal- History of Ancient India (4250 B.C.-637 A.D.) Vol- II, , Atlantic Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 2006, p.434
  42. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p.423
  43. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:60,61
  44. P.Mittal- Op.cit, p.433
  45. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 423
  46. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:68,69

⃰ Though traditional pandits try to find veiled references to Radha in the Bhagavata Purana, it is seen that the name occurs for the first time in the 9th century A.D. and that the Radha worship is a late growth in Bhagavatism. A.D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 81

  1. Ibid, p.70
  2. Venkatakrishna Rao – Krishna’s story in its various settings, QJMS, vol- XLIX, 1958, No.1, p.28
  3. Vettam Mani-Op.cit, p. 426
  4. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.105
  5. C.Singhal and Roshan Gupta- The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period, a New Interpretation, Atlantic Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 2003, pp:196,197
  6. P.Mittal- Op.cit, p.444
  7. Vettam Mani-Op.cit, p. 426
  8. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:98,99
  9. Prof Vrinda Nabar and Shanta Tumkur- The Bhagavad Gita, Translated from the Sanskrit- Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1997, p.XIII
  10. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. 285
  11. Gopal Chowdhary – Op.cit, pp:99,110
  12. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:285-287
  13. Ibid, pp:415,416
  14. Ibid, pp:416,418
  15. Ibid, p. 418
  16. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 429
  17. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.450